Rockhill Quarry, Maidstone Iguanodon: Early/Lower Aptian, United Kingdom
collected by W. H. Bensted 1834

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Pinnites mantellii
Etheridge 1885
Pinnites patens
Etheridge 1885
Pinnites benstedi
Etheridge 1885
Rhynchonellata - Terebratulida - Terebratulidae
Terebratula sp. Müller 1776
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
Exogyra sinuata
Etheridge 1885
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Bakevelliidae
Gervillia sp. Defrance 1820
    = Gervillia aviculoides
Etheridge 1885
Bivalvia - Trigoniida - Trigoniidae
Trigonia caudata
Etheridge 1885
    = Trigonia sp. Bruguière 1789
Mantell 1834
Reptilia - Testudines
Protemys serrata n. gen., n. sp. Owen 1849
Owen 1851 1 specimen
Mr Bensted, the owner of the quarry, had the good fortune to discover the dislocated remains of the carapace and plastron of a chelonian reptile
Reptilia - Iguanodontidae
Iguanodon sp. Mantell 1825
1 individual
"now placed in the splendid museum of Mr. Mantell at Brighton"
    = Iguanodon mantelli Meyer 1832
Meyer 1832
BMNH R.3791
    = Mantellodon carpenteri n. gen., n. sp. Paul 2012
Norman 2013
synonym of Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis
Reptilia - Sauropterygia
Polyptychodon continuus n. sp. Owen 1841
Owen 1851 1 specimen
nomen vanum belonging to Plesiosauria
Plesiosaurus latispinus n. sp. Owen 1854
Owen 1864 2 specimens
nomen vanum belonging to Plesiosauria
about a dozen vertebrae, with ribs, scapulae, portions of the coracoid bones, and ilium, and a few other parts of the skeleton
Coniferophyta indet.
Etheridge 1885
"coniferous wood"
see common names

Country:United Kingdom State/province:England County:Kent
Coordinates: 51.2° North, 0.7° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:41.3° North, 11.4° East
Basis of coordinate:estimated from map
Altitude:97 meters
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Cretaceous Epoch:Early/Lower Cretaceous
Stage:Aptian 10 m.y. bin:Cretaceous 3
Key time interval:Early/Lower Aptian
Age range of interval:125.45000 - 122.46000 m.y. ago
Geological group:Lower Greensand Formation:Hythe
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: also called "Shanklin-sand" and "Kentish rag"
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:gray lithified sandy "limestone"
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "marine arenaceous beds"; "a hard variety of limestone"; "grey arenaceous limestone"
Environment:marine indet.
Modes of preservation:body,mold/impression
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils
Spatial orientation:random
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Articulated whole bodies:many
Associated major elements:many
Spatial resolution:parautochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:salvage,selective quarrying,surface (float),surface (in situ),mechanical,field collection,survey of museum collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:BMNH
Collectors:W. H. Bensted Collection dates:May 1834
Collection method comments: listed as Mr. Bensted by Buckland and Mr Prinsted and Mr Binsted by Mantell
Also known as:Iguanodon Quarry, Rock Hill
Database number:52568
Authorizer:M. Carrano, R. Benson Enterer:M. Carrano, R. Benson
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:vertebrate
Created:2005-08-11 07:03:11 Last modified:2019-07-16 14:50:36
Access level:the public Released:2005-08-11 07:03:11
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

33239.ETE G. A. Mantell. 1834. Discovery of the bones of the Iguanodon in a quarry of Kentish Rag (a limestone belonging to the lower greensand formation) near Maidstone, Kent. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 17(33):200-201 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

53981 Anonymous. 1923. The Maidstone Iguanodon. From the rag stone quarry in Queen's Road, 1834. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Congress of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies facing lix [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
54342 J. F. Blake. 1877. History of the restoration of extinct animals. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 5:91-103 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
23494 W. Buckland. 1835. On the discovery of fossil bones of the Iguanodon, in the Iron Sand of the Wealden Formation in the Isle of Wight, and in the Isle of Purbeck. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, series 2 3(2):425-432 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/P. Wagner]
64174 W. Buckland. 1858. The Bridgewater Treatises on the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as Manifested in the Creation. Treatise IV. Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology. 3rd Edition 1:lxxxiii-542 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
62763 F. Dixon. 1850. The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Formations of Sussex xvi-422 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]
30956ETE R. Etheridge. 1885. Manual of Geology: Theoretical and Practical. Part II. Stratigraphical Geology and Palaeontology. Charles Griffin and Company, London 1-712 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14142ETE R. Lydekker. 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum (Natural History), London 1-309 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Uhen]
62843 G. A. Mantell. 1834. Note sur la découverte des ossements fossiles dans la formation de Glauconie Sableuse (Lower green sand) [Note on the discovery of fossil bones of Iguanodon, in the sandy glauconite formation (Lower green sand)]. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 2(2):63-64 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
58952 G. A. Mantell. 1835. Notice of the discovery of the remains of the Iguanodon in the Lower Green Sand Formation of the south-east of England. The American Journal of Science and Arts 27:355-360, 420 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
64605 G. A. Mantell. 1836. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Objects of Geology, Natural History, and Antiquity, (Chiefly Discovered in Sussex), in the Museum, Attached to the Sussex Scientific and Literary Institution, at Brighton (6th Edition) 1-46 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
63768 G. A. Mantell. 1850. A Pictorial Atlas of Fossil Remains 1-207 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17381ETE G. A. Mantell. 1851. Petrifactions and Their Teachings; or, a Hand-Book to the Gallery of Organic Remains of the British Museum xi-496 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
63762 G. A. Mantell. 1854. The Medals of Creation; or, First Lessions in Geology, and the Study of Organic Remains 2:447-930 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
30159ETE H. v. Meyer. 1832. Palaeologica zur Geschichte der Erde und ihrer Geschöpfe; Verlag von Siegmund Schmerber, Franfurt am Main 1-560 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
43605 D. Naish and D. M. Martill. 2008. Dinosaurs of Great Britain and the role of the Geological Society of London in their discovery: Ornithischia. Journal of the Geological Society, London 165:613-623 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
50539 D. B. Norman. 2013. On the taxonomy and diversity of Wealden iguanodontian dinosaurs (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda). Revue de Paléobiologie 32(2):385-404 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
64387 R. Owen. 1850. Descriptions of the fossils of the Chalk Formation. Description of the fossil reptiles of the Chalk Formation. The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Formations of Sussex 378-404 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14140ETE R. Owen. 1851. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Cretaceous Formations. Part I. Chelonia (Lacertilia, etc.). The Palaeontographical Society, London 1851:1-118 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/R. Benson]
14133ETE R. Owen. 1855. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Part II. Dinosauria (Iguanodon). [Wealden]. The Palaeontographical Society, London 1854:1-54 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
44004 R. Owen. 1864. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Cretaceous formations. Supplement no. IV. Sauropterygia (Plesiosaurus). Palaeontographical Society Monographs 16(70):1-18 [R. Benson/R. Benson]
29299 F. -J. Pictet. 1853. Traité de Paléontologie ou Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Fossiles Considérés dans Leurs Rapports Zoologiques et Géologiques [Treatise of Paleontology or the Natural History of Fossil Animals Considered in their Zoological and Geological Relationships] 1:xiv-584 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]
22076 F. A. Quenstedt. 1861. Epochen der Natur [Epochs of Nature] vi-853 [G. Webster/G. Webster/M. Carrano]
63158 G. F. Richardson. 1834. Recent discovery of bones of the Iguanodon. The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, series 3 5(25):77-78 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
58795 W. A. S. Sarjeant. 1997. History of dinosaur discoveries. I. Early discoveries. In P. J. Currie & K. Padian (ed.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs 340-347 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
65100 W. E. Swinton. 1934. A Guide to the Fossil Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in the Department of Geology and Paleontology in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 7 xii-87 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
52016 W. E. Swinton. 1951. Gideon Mantell and the Maidstone Iguanodon. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 8(2):261-276 [M. Carrano/A. Murch]
17102ETE W. E. Swinton. 1970. The Dinosaurs, Wiley-Interscience, New York 1-331 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
68171 E. Van Den Broeck. 1900. Les dépôts à Iguanodons de Bernissart et leur transfert dans l’étage Purbeckien ou Aquilonien du Jurassique supérieur. Exposé comprenant une revue de la faune des vertébrés du Purbeckien et du Wealdien dans le sud-est de l’Angleterre [The Iguanodon deposits of Bernissart and their transfer to the Purbeckian or Aquilonian stage of the Upper Jurassic. Presentation including a review of the vertebrate fauna of the Purbeckian and Wealden of southeast England ]. Mémoires de la Société Belge de Géologie de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 14:39-112 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
30971ETE A. S. Woodward and C. D. Sherborn. 1890. A Catalogue of British Fossil Vertebrata. Dulao & Company, London 1-396 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]