Cabo Espichel tracksite (level 5): Tithonian, Portugal
collected 1992-1993

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Anchyspirocyclina lusitanica
Meyer and Pittman 1995
Miliolinidae indet.
Meyer and Pittman 1995
Sauropoda indet. Marsh 1878
5 individuals
trackways; PM5-1
    = Brontopodus sp. Farlow et al. 1989
dos Santos 1998
Actinopteri - Pycnodontiformes - Pycnodontidae
Pycnodontidae indet. (Agassiz 1833)
Meyer and Pittman 1995
see common names

Country:Portugal State/province:Setúbal County:Sesimbra
Coordinates: 39.4° North, 9.2° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:33.6° North, 1.2° East
Basis of coordinate:based on nearby landmark
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Jurassic Epoch:Late/Upper Jurassic
Stage:Tithonian 10 m.y. bin:Jurassic 6
Key time interval:Tithonian
Age range of interval:152.10000 - 145.00000 m.y. ago
Local order:bottom to top
Stratigraphic resolution:bed
Stratigraphy comments: Upper Portlandian or Portlandian B, possibly Lourinha Fm., or "Espichel unit"
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:burrows,bioturbation,shelly/skeletal wackestone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: "shallow water carbonates" with "irregular burrowed surfaces in wackestone"; "miliolinid wackestone...[with] circumgranular cracking"
Environment:shallow subtidal indet.
Modes of preservation:body,mold/impression,trace
Size of fossils:macrofossils,mesofossils,microfossils
Spatial orientation:life position
Temporal resolution:snapshot
Spatial resolution:autochthonous
Collection methods and comments
Collection excludes:some genera,species names
Collection methods:observed (not collected)
Reason for describing collection:general faunal/floral analysis
Collection dates:1992-1993
Also known as:Pegadas de Mula, Pedra da Mua
Database number:55753
Authorizer:M. Carrano Enterer:K. Maguire, M. Carrano
Modifier:M. Carrano Research group:vertebrate
Created:2005-11-03 14:19:25 Last modified:2023-11-21 16:22:32
Access level:the public Released:2005-11-03 14:19:25
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

65423. M. T. Antunes. 1976. Dinossáurios Eocretácicos de Lagosteiros [Early Cretaceous dinosaurs of Lagosteiros]. Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Ciências da Terra 1:1-35 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

47271 D. Castanera, C. Pascual, and J. I. Canudo. 2013. Primera evidencia de morfología del pie en saurópodos en el grupo Urbión de la Cuenca de Cameros (Cretácico Inferior, Soria, España) [First evidence of sauropod pedal morphology in the Urbión Group of the Cameros Basin (Lower Cretaceous, Soria, Spain)]. Geogaceta 53:13-16 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
69056 D. Castanera, V. F. Santos, L. Piñuela, C. Pascual, B. Vila, J. I. Canudo, and J. J. Moratalla. 2016. Iberian sauropod tracks through time: variations in sauropod manus and pes track morphologies. In P. L. Falkingham, D. Marty, & A. Richter (eds.), Dinosaur Tracks: The Next Steps 120-137 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
77926 D. Castanera, B. Vila, N. L. Razzolini, V. F. Santos, and J. I. Canudo. 2014. Sauropod trackways of the Iberian Peninsula: palaeoetological and palaeoenvironmental implications. Journal of Iberian Geology 40(1):49-59 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
36721ETE V. F. dos Santos. 1998. Dinosaur tracksites in Portugal: the Jurassic-Cretaceous record. In A. M. G. de Carvalho, A. M. Andrade, V. F. dos Santos, J. Cascalho, R. Taborda, (eds.), I Encontro Internacional sobre Paleobiologia dos Dinossáurios. Museu Nacional de História Natural, Lisboa 7-16 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
79841 S. Figueiredo, P. Dinis, P. Rosina and I. Bachtsevanidou Strantzali. 2017. A new record of a possible ornithopod footprint from the Lower Cretaceous of Cabo Espichel (Sesimbra, Portugal). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 56(2):217-231 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
75421 S. D. Figueiredo, C. N. d. Carvalho, P. P. Cunha and I. S. Carvalho. 2021. New dinosaur tracks from the lower Barremian of Portugal (Areia do Mastro Formation, Cape Espichel). Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection 9:84-96 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
86555 S. D. Figueiredo, I. S. Carvalho, X. Pereda-Suberbiola, P. P. Cunha, V. Antunes and I. Díaz-Martínez. 2022. New ornithopod footprints from the Areia do Mastro Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Espichel Cape (Portugal, Western Iberia) and their context in the Iberian ichnological ornithopod record. Cretaceous Research 131:105069 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
81822 S. D. Figueiredo, P. P. Cunha, X. Pereda Suberbiola, C. N. Carvalho, I. S. Carvalho, E. Buffetaut, H. Tong, M. Fernanda Sousa, V. Antunes and R. Anastácio. 2022. The dinosaur tracksite from the lower Barremian of Areia do Mastro Formation (Cabo Espichel, Portugal): implications for dinosaur behavior. Cretaceous Research 137:105219 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
54312 M. G. Lockley. 1997. Cabo Espichel. In P. J. Currie & K. Padian (ed.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs 87 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
14683ETE M. G. Lockley, C. A. Meyer, and V. F. Santos. 1995. Trackway evidence for a herd of juvenile sauropods from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. In M. G. Lockley, V. F. dos Santos, C. A. Meyer, & A. P. Hunt (eds.), Aspects of Sauropod Paleobiology. GAIA 10:27-35 [M. Carrano/K. Maguire/M. Carrano]
17978ETE M. G. Lockley, J. G. Pittman, C. A. Meyer and V. F. Santos. 1995. On the common occurrence of manus-dominated sauropod trackways in Mesozoic carbonates. In M. G. Lockley, V. F. dos Santos, C. A. Meyer, & A. P. Hunt (eds.), Aspects of Sauropod Paleobiology. GAIA 10:119-124 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
77214 A. Mayor and W. A. S. Sarjeant. 2001. The folklore of footprints in stone: from classical antiquity to the present. Ichnos 8(2):143-163 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17977ETE C. A. Meyer, M. G. Lockley, J. W. Robinson and V. F. Santos. 1995. A comparison of well-preserved sauropod tracks from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and the western United States: evidence and implications. In M. G. Lockley, V. F. dos Santos, C. A. Meyer, & A. P. Hunt (eds.), Aspects of Sauropod Paleobiology. GAIA 10:57-64 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
17979ETE C. A. Meyer and J. G. Pittman. 1995. A comparison between the Brontopodus ichnofacies of Portugal, Switzerland and Texas. In M. G. Lockley, V. F. dos Santos, C. A. Meyer, & A. P. Hunt (eds.), Aspects of Sauropod Paleobiology. GAIA 10:125-133 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
55488 M. Romano, M. A. Whyte, and S. J. Jackson. 2007. Trackway ratio: A new look at trackway gauge in the analysis of quadrupedal dinosaur trackways and its implications for ichnotaxonomy. Ichnos 14(3–4):257-270 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
70661 V. F. Santos, P. Caetano, and A. Pólvora. 2016. Sesimbra Geocircuit and dinosaur tracksites. Comunicações Geológicas 103(Especial 1):153-158 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
70303 J. L. Sanz. 2000. Yacimientos ibéricos de dinosaurios [Iberian dinosaur localities]. Dinosaurios: Los Señores del Pasado [Dinosaurs: The Lords of the Land] 267-299 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano]