Epi Island: Late/Upper Miocene, Vanuatu
collected by de la Rüe 1934-1936

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Anthozoa - Scleractinia - Fungiidae
Fungia vaughani Boschma 1923
recombined as Cycloseris vaughani
Echinoidea - Cidaroida - Cidaridae
Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) imperialis (Lamarck 1816)
Gastropoda - Turbinidae
Turbo (Marmarostoma) perlatus (Abrad 1946)
Ladd 1966
Gastropoda - Cymatiidae
Ranella (Apollo) sp. Lamarck 1816
Gastropoda - Cypraeidae
Cypraea (Luponia) subchinensis Abrard 1946
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva forelandensis
Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Hermes) epiensis
Gastropoda - Hipponicidae
Mitrularia equestris (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Cheilea equestris
Gastropoda - Naticidae
Natica (Mamma) mamilla (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Natica (Natica) mamilla
Gastropoda - Triphoridae
Triforis (Mastonia) auberti
Ladd 1972
Gastropoda - Siliquariidae
Tenagodes (Agathirses) aff. cumingi
original and current combination Tenagodus
Bivalvia - Carditida - Carditidae
Venericardia lamyi
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium (Ctenocardia) fornicatum (Sowerby 1840)
recombined as Ctenocardia (Ctenocardia) fornicata
Cardium (Ctenocardia) victor Angas 1872
recombined as Freneixicardia victor
Cardium (Trachycardium) aff. arenicola (Reeve 1845)
recombined as Acrosterigma (Vasticardium) arenicola
Cardium (Trachycardium) laddi
original and current combination Trachycardium
Cardium (Laevicardium) mansfieldi
original and current combination Laevicardium
Cardium (Laevicardium) sp. (Swainson 1840)
original and current combination Laevicardium
Cardium (Laevicardium) auberti
original and current combination Laevicardium
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Glossidae
Isocardia (Meiocardia) moltkiana (Gmelin 1791)
recombined as Meiocardia moltkiana
Bivalvia - Cardiida - Veneridae
Meretrix (Amiantis) sinuatocostata
original and current combination Amiantis
Circe (Crista) pulchella
Meretrix (Pitaria) sp. (Roemer 1857)
original and current combination Pitaria
Venus (Timoclea) fischeri
Antigona (Ventricola) vitiensis
Meretrix (Callista) sp. (Poli 1791)
original and current combination Callista
Bivalvia - Arcida - Glycymerididae
Pectunculus laddi
synonym of Glycymeris
Bivalvia - Arcida - Arcidae
Arca (Barbatia) cf. lima (Reeve 1844)
Arca (Anadara) subtijidamarensis
original and current combination Anadara
Arca (Navicula) avellana (Lamarck 1819)
recombined as Lamarcka avellana
Arca (Acar) plicata (Dillwyn 1817)
recombined as Acar plicata
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Limidae
Lima (Ctenoides) auberti
original and current combination Ctenoides
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Plicatulidae
Plicatula vermiculata
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Spondylidae
Spondylus epiensis
Spondylus ducalis
Spondylus candidus Lamarck 1819
Bivalvia - Pectinida - Pectinidae
Chlamys (Pallium) epiensis
Chlamys (Pallium) forelandensis
Chlamys (Aequipecten) pallium (Linnaeus 1758)
recombined as Gloripallium pallium
Bivalvia - Aviculidae
Avicula sp. Bruguière 1791
Cycloclypeus gumbelianus
Cycloclypeus cf. communis
see common names

Coordinates: 16.7° South, 168.3° East (view map)
Paleocoordinates:16.7° South, 168.2° East
Basis of coordinate:based on nearby landmark
Geographic resolution:outcrop
Period:Neogene Epoch:Miocene
10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 6
Key time interval:Late/Upper Miocene
Age range of interval:11.60800 - 5.33300 m.y. ago
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: Unknown lithostratigraphic unit. AGE: Late Miocene in Abrard (1946) and Ladd (1966, 1977, 1982), presumably on the basis of foraminiferal and macrofossil affinities to other dated Indo-Pacific faunas (e.g. Fiji).
Lithology and environment
Primary lithology:tuffaceous unlithified calcareous sandstone
Includes fossils?Y
Lithology description: SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Calcareous, tuffaceous sandstone. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, based on figured specimens.
Environment:coastal indet.
Geology comments: ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine, siliciclastic setting.
Modes of preservation:body
Size of fossils:macrofossils
Preservation of anatomical detail:good
Collection methods and comments
Collection methods:field collection
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Collectors:de la Rüe Collection dates:1934-1936
Collection method comments: COLLECTOR: E. A. de la Rüe (1934-1936). REPOSITORY: Not stated in text, possibly MNHN, Paris.
Taxonomic list comments:COVERAGE: Exhaustive for gastropoda and bivalvia. NOMENCLATURE: Rather antiquated, but with species-resolution assignments. Nomenclature updated by Ladd (1966, 1977, 1982) where possible.
Database number:77902
Authorizer:A. Hendy Enterer:A. Hendy
Modifier:A. Hendy Research group:marine invertebrate
Created:2008-01-22 14:30:38 Last modified:2013-11-25 13:37:23
Access level:authorizer only Released:2009-01-22 14:30:38
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

26295. R. Abrard. 1946. Fossiles Néogénes et Quaternaires des Nouvelles-Hébrides. Annales de Paléontologie 32:1-112 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]

Secondary references:

26223 H. S. Ladd. 1966. Chitons and Gastropods (Haliotidae through Adeorbidae) from Western Pacific Islands. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 531:1-98 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/J. Millet]
11409 H. S. Ladd. 1972. Cenozoic fossil mollusks from Western Pacific Islands; Gastropods (Turritellidae through Strombidae). United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 532:1-79 [A. Miller/A. Hendy/A. Hendy]