Baltic Amber, GPIH collection (Eocene of Russian Federation)

Where: Kaliningrad, Russian Federation (54.9° N, 19.9° E: paleocoordinates 53.9° N, 15.2° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Priabonian (38.0 - 33.9 Ma)

• According to Aleksandrova and Zaporozhets (2008), the higher parts of the Prussian Formation (including the Blaue Erde or Blue Earth) belong to the Charlesdowniea clathrata angulosa dinocyst Zone. Based on its index species, this zone is concurrent to Zone W13 established in the Parisian basin (Châteauneuf and Gruas-Cavagnetto 1978), where it is correlated with nannoplankton zones NP18–NP21 (Powell, 1992) of the Priabonian. In the Paleogene zonation of northwestern Europe, the first occurrence of Thalassiphora fenestrata is designated at the base of the dinocyst Subzone D12b (36.20 +/- 0.1 Ma), which is correlated with zones NP18 (terminal part)–NP20 of the Priabonian (Luterbacher et al., 2004).

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; amber

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Preservation: amber

Collection methods: surface (float)

• Repository: Geologische-Palaeontologische Institut, Hamburg University (GPIH), now called Centrum of Natural History (CeNak). Includes material originally from collection of Carsten Gröhn.

Primary reference: M. S. Engel. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259:1-192 [M. Clapham/A. Noshirvan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 110735: authorized by Matthew Clapham, entered by Matthew Clapham on 12.06.2011, edited by Jered Karr, Arram Noshirvan, Amy Delelli and Annabelle Louderback

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Insecta
 Hemiptera - Tropiduchidae
Patollo aestiorum n. sp.121 Szwedo and Stroinski 2013 planthopper
Grohn 373B
 Hemiptera - Cixiidae
Perunus bruziorum n. gen. n. sp.119
Perunus bruziorum n. gen. n. sp.119 Szwedo and Stroiński 2002 cixiid planthopper
Grohn 1712
 Hemiptera - Achilidae
Ptychogroehnia reducta n. gen. n. sp.120
Ptychogroehnia reducta n. gen. n. sp.120 Szwedo and Stroinski 2001 achilid planthopper
Grohn 244
 Hemiptera - Aphididae
Unicohormaphis sorini n. gen. n. sp.127, Wojciechaphis andrei n. gen. n. sp.126, Mengeaphis glandulosa126
Unicohormaphis sorini n. gen. n. sp.127 Wegierek and Żyła 2011 aphid
coll. W. Weitschat
Wojciechaphis andrei n. gen. n. sp.126 Wegierek and Kania 2015 aphid
GPIH 4456 (Groehn 1686)
Mengeaphis glandulosa126 Menge 1856 aphid
GPIH 4574 (Groehn 3407)
 Hemiptera - Aphalaridae
"Parascenia weitschati n. gen. n. sp." = Eogyropsylla weitschati71
"Parascenia weitschati n. gen. n. sp." = Eogyropsylla weitschati71 Klimaszewski 1997 jumping plant louse
GPIH 3752
 Hemiptera - Weitschatidae
Weitschatus stigmatus72 Koteja 2008 scale insect
GPIH Cocc-0403, Cocc-1604
 Hemiptera - Lithuanicoccidae
Lithuanicoccus damzeni n. gen. n. sp.72
Lithuanicoccus damzeni n. gen. n. sp.72 Koteja 2008 scale insect
GPIH Cocc-0404a-e, 0933a-f; Grohn 0217, 1914
 Hemiptera - Serafinidae
Serafinus acutipterus72 Koteja 2008 scale insect
Grohn 1903
 Hemiptera - Grohnidae
Grohnus eichmanni n. gen. n. sp.72
Grohnus eichmanni n. gen. n. sp.72 Koteja 2008 scale insect
Grohn 1919
 Hemiptera - Cicadellidae
Protodikraneura cephalica n. gen. n. sp.37, Jantarivacanthus kotejai n. gen. n. sp.118
Protodikraneura cephalica n. gen. n. sp.37 Gebicki and Szwedo 2006 leafhopper
Grohn 2680
Jantarivacanthus kotejai n. gen. n. sp.118 Szwedo 2005 leafhopper
GPIH 4471 (Grohn 198)
 Hemiptera - Aradidae
Calisius balticus49, "Aneurus (Aneurodes) groehni n. sp." = Aneurus (Aneurus) groehni50
Calisius balticus49 Usinger 1941 flat bug
Grohn 2260
"Aneurus (Aneurodes) groehni n. sp." = Aneurus (Aneurus) groehni50 Heiss 2001 flat bug
Grohn 2259
 Hemiptera - Piesmatidae
Heissiana serafini n. gen. n. sp.90
Heissiana serafini n. gen. n. sp.90 Popov 2001 ash grey leaf bug
GPIH BBV 230; Grohn 2208
 Hemiptera - Miridae
Hallodapomimus elektrinus55, Hallodapomimus succinus n. sp.55, Epigonopsallops groehni n. gen. n. sp.57, Cylapopsallops kerzhneri n. gen. n. sp.94, Metoisops groehni n. sp.58, Metoisops intergerivus n. sp.58, Fulviocylapus gorczycai n. gen. n. sp.56, "Stenopterna sambiensis n. gen. n. sp." = Tschirnhausia sambiensis57
Hallodapomimus elektrinus55 Herczek 2000 plant bug
coll. W. Weitschat, Jens von Holt
Hallodapomimus succinus n. sp.55 Herczek 2000 plant bug
coll. W. Weitschat
Epigonopsallops groehni n. gen. n. sp.57 Herczek and Popov 2009 plant bug
GPIMH 4515 (ex. Grohn 5350)
Cylapopsallops kerzhneri n. gen. n. sp.94 Popov and Herczek 2006 plant bug
Kat. Nr. 4478
Metoisops groehni n. sp.58 Herczek and Popov 2014 plant bug
GPIH Groehn 5246
Metoisops intergerivus n. sp.58 Herczek and Popov 2014 plant bug
GPIH Groehn 2291
Fulviocylapus gorczycai n. gen. n. sp.56 Herczek and Popov 2005 plant bug
GPIH 4476 (Grohn 2296), 4477 (Grohn 5203)
"Stenopterna sambiensis n. gen. n. sp." = Tschirnhausia sambiensis57 Herczek and Popov 2009 plant bug
GPIMH 4662 (ex. Grohn 5353)
 Hemiptera - Microphysidae
Loricula (Eocenophysa) damzeni92 Popov 2004 true bug
GPIH 4337 (Grohn 2286)
Loricula (Myrmedobia) pericarti n. sp.92 Popov 2004 true bug
GPIH 4338 (Grohn 5216)
 Hemiptera - Lyctocoridae
Persephonocoris kulickae93 Popov and Herczek 2001 true bug
Lyctoferus similis n. sp.91 Popov 2003 true bug
GPIH 4319 (Grohn 2264)
Lyctoferus insertus n. sp.91 Popov 2003 true bug
GPIH 4320 (Grohn 2269), 4370
Lyctoferus groehni n. sp.91 Popov 2003 true bug
GPIH 4317 (Grohn 2223), 4318 (Grohn 2289)
Lyctoferus pronotalis n. sp.91 Popov 2003 true bug
GPIH 4369
Lyctoferus longicapitus n. sp.91 Popov 2003 true bug
GPIH 4368
Xyloesteles parvulus n. gen. n. sp.95 Popov and Herczek 2011 true bug
 Hemiptera - Thaumastocoridae
Thaumastotingis areolatus n. gen. n. sp.53 Heiss and Golub 2015 palm bug
GPIH 4569 (Groehn 5394)
Proxylastodoris gerdae54 Bechly and Wittmann 2000 palm bug
Grohn 2288
 Hemiptera - Tingidae
Archepopovia yurii n. gen. n. sp.40 Golub 2001 lace bug
GPIH 4302 (Grohn 2238)
Parasinalda groehni n. sp.52 Heiss and Golub 2013 lace bug
GPIH 4410 (Groehn 5294)
Intercader uniseriatus n. sp.42 Golub and Popov 2005 lace bug
GPIH 4393
Intercader velteni n. sp.41 Golub and Popov 2002 lace bug
GPIH 4295 (ex. coll. Velten)
 Hemiptera - Reduviidae
Proptilocerus dolosus51 Wasmann 1932 assassin bug
? Proptilocnemus sp.51 Heiss 2009 assassin bug
Grohn 5239H
Collarhamphus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.97 Putshkov and Popov 1995 thread-legged bug
GPIH 3602
 Hemiptera - Hydrometridae
Hydrometra groehni n. sp.6 Andersen 2003 marsh treader
Grohn 5236
Metrocephala anderseni5 Popov 1996 marsh treader
Grohn 1655
 Hemiptera - Gerridae
Electrogerris kotashevichi5 Andersen 2000 water strider
Grohn 1680-a,b
 Hemiptera - Veliidae
Balticovelia weitschati n. gen. n. sp.5 Andersen 2000 riffle bug
Grohn 2235
Electrovelia baltica5 Andersen 1998 riffle bug
Grohn 1522
 Thysanoptera - Heterothripidae
Heterothrips nani109 Schliephake 2001 thrips
GPIH Nr. 664
 Thysanoptera - Stenurothripidae
Stenurothrips melior109 Schliephake 1990 thrips
GPIH Nr. 267
 Thysanoptera - Phlaeothripidae
Weitschatithrips apithanus n. gen. n. sp.109 Schliephake 2003 thrips
GPIH 4364
Sucinothrips incertus109 Schliephake 1999 thrips
GPIH 4367
Necrothrips mesus n. sp.109 Schliephake 2003 thrips
GPIH 4365
Parahoplothrips nicolaji109 Schliephake 2003 thrips
GPIH 4366
 Thysanoptera - Thripidae
Thripinae indet.109 Stevens 1829 thrips
GPIH Nr. 319
Taeniothrips lewisothripeus n. sp.109 Schliephake 2003 thrips
GPIH 4363
 Thysanoptera - Melanthripidae
"Eocranothrips compacticornis" = Eocranothrips annulicornis109
"Eocranothrips compacticornis" = Eocranothrips annulicornis109 Bagnall 1923 thrips
GPIH Nr. 19
 Plecoptera - Nemouridae
Lednia zilli n. sp.26
Lednia zilli n. sp.26 Caruso and Wichard 2010 spring stonefly
GPIH Groehn 6945
 Blattodea - Corydiidae
Paraeuthyrrhapha groehni n. sp.7 Anisyutkin 2008 cockroach
GPIH 4501, 4414 (Grohn 7142) in Anisyutkin & Grohn, 2012
 Blattodea - Blaberidae
Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni n. gen. n. sp.8 Anisyutkin and Gröhn 2012 giant cockroach
GPIH 4544 (C. Grohn 7137)
 Phasmatodea - Archipseudophasmatidae
Archipseudophasmatidae "subfamily 2"163 Zompro 2001 stick insect
Grohn 2657, Grohn 2715, GPIH 196, GPIH 7
Archipseudophasmatinae indet.163 Zompro 2001 stick insect
Grohn 2725, unnumbered
Balticophasmatini indet.163 Zompro 2001 stick insect
Grohn 867, 2722, 2728
Balticophasma sp.163 Zompro 2001 stick insect
Grohn 1677, 2726, 2727; GPIH 1006, 1200
Archipseudophasma phoenix n. gen. n. sp.163 Zompro 2001 stick insect
GPIH 4300
Pseudoperla sp.163 Pictet 1854 stick insect
Grohn 456, 2721; GPIH unnumbered
? Pseudoperla sp.163 Pictet 1854 stick insect
GPIH 454, unnumbered; Grohn 2724
 Phasmatodea -
Electrotimema carstengroehni n. gen. n. sp.164 Zompro 2005 stick insect
GPIH 4412 (Grohn 2632)
Anareolatae indet.163 Redtenbacher 1906 stick insect
Grohn 2632
 Mantophasmatodea - Mantophasmatidae
Ensiferophasma velociraptor n. gen. n. sp.164 Zompro 2005 gladiator
GPIH 4272
Raptophasma kerneggeri163 Zompro 2001 gladiator
Grohn 2658, 2723; GPIH unnumbered
 Hymenoptera - Formicidae
Plagiolepis solitaria30 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 3316
Plagiolepis kuenowi30 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 3345
Prenolepis henschei75 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 591, 852
Nylanderia pygmaea75 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 670, 774, 844, 3318, 3332 (3 males)
Cataglyphoides intermedius n. sp.27 Dlussky 2008 ant
GPIH 4511, 4385b, c
Gesomyrmex hoernesi33 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 1632, 2652, 3338
"Amblyopone groehni n. sp." = Stigmatomma groehni29 Dlussky 2009 ant
GPIH 4509
"Amblyopone electrina n. sp." = Stigmatomma electrina29 Dlussky 2009 ant
GPIH 4508
Dolichoderus brevipalpis n. sp.28 Dlussky 2008 ant
GPIH 4504 (C. Grohn 2651)
Yantaromyrmex geinitzi31 Mayr 1868 ant
3 in Grohn collection (including Grohn 3307); 18 workers and 1 male in GPIH (including GPIH 589)
Eocenomyrma elegantula n. sp.32 Dlussky and Radchenko 2006 ant
GPIH 4404
Eocenomyrma rugosostriata98 Mayr 1868 ant
Groehn F-6738
Eocenomyrma orthospina98 Dlussky and Radchenko 2006 ant
Groehn F-6800
Stigmomyrmex venustus99 Mayr 1868 ant
Groehn 218, 245
Carebara antiqua102 Mayr 1868 ant
GPIH 4992 (Gröhn 6749)
Carebara groehni n. sp.102 Radchenko and Dlussky 2019 ant
GPIH 4991 (Gröhn 6802)
Electromyrmex wheeleri n. sp.101 Radchenko and Dlussky 2018 ant
GPIH 4937 (Groehn 6737)
Enneamerus costatus n. sp.100 Radchenko and Dlussky 2017 ant
GPIH Groehn F-6763
Proceratium eocenicum29 Dlussky 2009 ant
GPIH 4507
"Bradoponera meyeri" = Bradoponera meieri29 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 3343
Gnamptogenys europaea29 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 862, 3330 (x2)
Tetraponera ocellata29 Mayr 1868 ant
CGC 3355
Tetraponera simplex29 Mayr 1868 ant
CHC 3317
Tetraponera groehni n. sp.29 Dlussky 2009 ant
GPIH 4510
Ponera lobulifera29 Dlussky 2009 ant
GPIH 4506
Prionomyrmex janzeni n. sp.10 Baroni Urbani 2000 bulldog ant
1 ex coll Janzen, other ex. coll Damzen 103
Procerapachys annosus29 Wheeler 1915 ant
CHC 3348
 Hymenoptera - Megachilidae
Glyptapis densopunctata Engel 2001 mason bee
Nr. 2623 (CCGG)
Ctenoplectrella sp. Cockerell 1909 mason bee
Nr. 1616 (CCGG)
Ctenoplectrella viridiceps Cockerell 1909 mason bee
Nr. 1615 (CCGG)
Ctenoplectrella cockerelli Engel 2001 mason bee
Nr. 1011 (CCGG)
 Hymenoptera - Apidae
Apidae indet. Latreille 1802 bee
Nr. 2616 (CCGG)
Protobombus sp. Cockerell 1908 bee
Nr. 2608 (CCGG)
Protobombus indecisus Cockerell 1908 bee
Nr. 1521 (CCGG)
Succinapis micheneri Engel 2001 bee
Nr. 3709 (CCGG)
 Hymenoptera - Scolebythidae
Pristapenesia primaeva14 Brues 1933 wasp
Piece 8 & 9, GPIH 3890
 Hymenoptera - Dryinidae
Harpactosphecion gracile83 Brues 1933 wasp
Palaeodryinus groehni n. gen. n. sp.82 Olmi and Bechly 2001 wasp
GPIMH 4302 (Grohn 1228)
Dryinus janzeni82 Olmi 2000 wasp
Grohn 3010
 Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae
Paxylommites groehni n. sp.123 Tolkanitz and Perkovsky 2015 ichneumon wasp
GPIH 4459 (Groehn 6794)
 Hymenoptera - Stephanidae
"Electrostephanus sulcatus n. sp." = Denaeostephanus sulcatus2, Electrostephanus neovenatus n. sp.2
"Electrostephanus sulcatus n. sp." = Denaeostephanus sulcatus2 Aguiar and Janzen 2000 crown wasp
SGPIH 3892
Electrostephanus neovenatus n. sp.2 Aguiar and Janzen 2000 crown wasp
SGPIH 3893
 Hymenoptera - Diprionidae
Eodiprion groehni n. gen. n. sp.107
Eodiprion groehni n. gen. n. sp.107 Schedl 2007 conifer sawfly
GPIH 4498 (Grohn 3006)
 Coleoptera - Dermestidae
Phradonoma ambericum n. sp.47 Háva et al. 2008 skin beetle
GPIH 151/2001
Trogoderma larvalis n. sp.46 Háva et al. 2006 skin beetle
GPIH 4466 (L1367)
Globicornis (Hadrotoma) ambericus n. sp.46 Háva et al. 2006 skin beetle
GPIH 4467 (C4751); C 7920 in Hava & Bukejs 2018
Globicornis (Globicornis) groehni n. sp.18 Bukejs and Háva 2018 skin beetle
GPIH 4951 (Groehn 8587)
"Megatoma (Megatoma) electra n. sp." = Megatoma electra162 Zhantiev 2006 skin beetle
GPIMUH 4482
Anthrenus (Nathrenus) groehni n. sp.46 Háva et al. 2006 skin beetle
GPIH 4465 (C4064)
Anthrenus (Nathrenus) kerneggeri n. sp.47 Háva et al. 2008 skin beetle
GPIH 144/2001
Anthrenus (Nathrenus) ambericus n. sp.46 Háva et al. 2006 skin beetle
GPIH 4464 (C4456)
cf. Trinodinae indet.45 Casey 1900 skin beetle
GPIH L 7674
Evorinea amberica n. sp.47 Háva et al. 2008 skin beetle
GPIH 131/2002
Attagenus obesus n. sp.47 Háva et al. 2008 skin beetle
GPIH 109/1998
Attagenus balticus n. sp.47 Háva et al. 2008 skin beetle
GPIH 44/1998
Attagenus hoffeinsorum46 Háva et al. 2006 skin beetle
GPIH 4468 (C4458); C 8043 in Hava & Bukejs 2018
 Coleoptera - Ptinidae
Falsogastrallus groehni n. sp.48 Háva and Zahradník 2019 spider beetle
GPIH 4988 (Groehn 8593)
Trichodesma (Trichodesma) amberica n. sp.161 Zahradník and Háva 2017 spider beetle
GPIH 4336 (Groehn C1409)
Trichodesma (Trichodesma) groehni n. sp.161 Zahradník and Háva 2017 spider beetle
GPIH 4336 (Groehn C8214)
Trichodesma (Trichodesma) electra n. sp.161 Zahradník and Háva 2017 spider beetle
GPIH 4336 (Groehn C8338)
 Coleoptera - Bostrichidae
Stephanopachys ambericus n. sp.160 Zahradník and Háva 2015 false powderpost beetle
GPIH 4336 (Groehn C8346)
 Coleoptera - Scirtidae
Elodes mysticopalpalis n. sp.70 Klausnitzer 2012 marsh beetle
GPIH 4324 (Groehn 2316)
Cyphon keilbachi n. sp.68 Klausnitzer 2004 marsh beetle
GPIH 4321 (Grohn 2418), 4323 (Grohn 1328)
Cyphon groehni n. sp.68 Klausnitzer 2004 marsh beetle
GPIH 4322 (Grohn 740)
 Coleoptera - Elmidae
Heterelmis groehni n. sp.15 Bukejs et al. 2015 riffle beetle
GPIH C7712
 Coleoptera - Brachypsectridae
Brachypsectridae indet.69 LeConte and Horn 1883 Texas beetle
Gröhn 2514
 Coleoptera - Elateridae
Abelater succineus n. sp.108 Schimmel 2005 click beetle
GPIH 4462 (Groehn 2450)
Megapenthes groehni n. sp.108 Schimmel 2005 click beetle
GPIH 4463 (Groehn 1184)
Megapenthes voigti n. sp.108 Schimmel 2005 click beetle
GPIH 4469 (Groehn 4612)
 Coleoptera - Ptiliidae
Micridium groehni n. sp.89 Polilov and Perkovsky 2004 feather-winged beetle
no. 4334 (GC-1174)
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
Eopiestus groehni n. gen. n. sp.25, Stenus "sp. B"96, Stenus "sp. C"96, Stenus "sp. D"96, Stenus "sp. F"96, Stenus groehni n. sp.96, Stenus abraham n. sp.96, Stenus avus96, Stenus atavus n. sp.96, Stenus archetypus n. sp.96, "Bolitobius groehni n. sp." = Parabolitobius groehni110
Eopiestus groehni n. gen. n. sp.25 Cai and Lu 2016 rove beetle
GPIH 4563 (Groehn 4789)
Stenus "sp. B"96 Latreille 1796 rove beetle
Groehn 1164
Stenus "sp. C"96 Latreille 1796 rove beetle
Groehn K 878
Stenus "sp. D"96 Latreille 1796 rove beetle
Groehn 1163
Stenus "sp. F"96 Latreille 1796 rove beetle
Groehn 4503
Stenus groehni n. sp.96 Puthz 2010 rove beetle
GPIH 4531 (Groehn 8153)
Stenus abraham n. sp.96 Puthz 2010 rove beetle
GPIH 4528 (Groehn 798)
Stenus avus96 Puthz 2010 rove beetle
Groehn 4485
Stenus atavus n. sp.96 Puthz 2010 rove beetle
GPIH 4529 (Groehn 4797)
Stenus archetypus n. sp.96 Puthz 2010 rove beetle
GPIH 4416 (Groehn 4584)
"Bolitobius groehni n. sp." = Parabolitobius groehni110 Schülke 2000 rove beetle
 Coleoptera - Cybocephalidae
Cybocephalus (Cybocephalus) balticus n. sp.74 Kurochkin and Kirejtshuk 2010 beetle
Groehn C4557
 Coleoptera - Cryptophagidae
Atomaria (Anchicera) groehni n. sp.85 Lyubarsky and Perkovsky 2014 silken fungus beetle
GPIH 4458 (Grohn 4297)
 Coleoptera - Nitidulidae
Baltoraea insignis n. gen. n. sp.74 Kurochkin and Kirejtshuk 2010 sap beetle
Groehn 995C
Baltoraea simillima n. sp.74 Kurochkin and Kirejtshuk 2010 sap beetle
Groehn 4243C
Microsoronia kerneggeri66 Kirejtshuk and Kurochkin 2010 sap beetle
GPIH 4424 (Grohn 355), 4425 (Grohn 2437)
Phenolia (Lasiodites) angustitibialis n. sp.66 Kirejtshuk and Kurochkin 2010 sap beetle
GPIH 4426 (Grohn C 4441)
 Coleoptera - Ischaliidae
Ischalia (Telnovia) danieli n. sp.4 Alekseev and Bukejs 2017 false fire-colored beetle
GPIH C2490
 Coleoptera - Zopheridae
Damzenia groehni n. gen. n. sp.3
Damzenia groehni n. gen. n. sp.3 Alekseev 2019 ironclad beetle
GPIH 4946 (Gröhn 8586)
 Coleoptera - Ripiphoridae
Pauroripidius groehni n. gen. n. sp.62
Pauroripidius groehni n. gen. n. sp.62 Kaupp and Nagel 2001 wedge shaped beetle
GPIH 4303 (Grohn 2300), 4304 (Grohn 1182), 4305 (Grohn 1433)
 Coleoptera - Tenebrionidae
Gonodera baygushevae n. sp.79, Yantaroxenos colydioides n. gen. n. sp.80, Gonialaena groehni n. gen. n. sp.78, Asida groehni n. sp.112
Gonodera baygushevae n. sp.79 Nabozhenko and Chigray 2018 comb-clawed beetle
GPIH 4989 (Groehn 0026)
Yantaroxenos colydioides n. gen. n. sp.80 Nabozhenko et al. 2016 darkling beetle
GPIH 4572 (Groehn 4736)
Gonialaena groehni n. gen. n. sp.78 Nabozhenko et al. 2019 darkling beetle
GPIH 4959 (Groehn 8589)
Asida groehni n. sp.112 Soldati and Nabozhenko 2017 darkling beetle
GPIH 4593 (Groehn 8502)
 Coleoptera - Anthicidae
Tomoderus saecularis n. sp.122 Telnov and Bukejs 2019 ant like flower beetle
GPIH 4958 (Groehn 8588)
 Coleoptera - Latridiidae
Revelieria groehni n. sp.111 Sergi et al. 2013 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4415 (Groehn 993)
Enicmus groehni n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4448 (Grohn 4535)
Stephostethus palaeobicostatus n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4434 (Grohn 2402)
Dienerella nielseni n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4450
Corticaria amberica104 Reike et al. 2017 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 612, 8216
Corticarina palaeominuta n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4435 (Grohn 8051), 4453 (Grohn 4666), 4454 (Grohn 8219), 4455 (Grohn 8217), Grohn 8039, 8041, 8042, 8218, 2369, 7841
Melanophthalma carstengroehni n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4447 (Grohn 4744)
Melanophthalma opprimera n. sp.103 Reike 2012 minute brown scavenger beetle
GPIH 4436 (Grohn 4522)
 Coleoptera - Cerambycidae
"Nothorhina granulicollis" = Nothorhina granulicollis34, "Palaeoasemum duffyi n. sp." = Nothorhina granulicollis1, Eurapatophysis groehni n. gen. n. sp.125
"Nothorhina granulicollis" = Nothorhina granulicollis34 Zang 1905 longhorned beetle
GPIH 0425
"Palaeoasemum duffyi n. sp." = Nothorhina granulicollis1 Zang 1905 longhorned beetle
GPIH 1461
Eurapatophysis groehni n. gen. n. sp.125 Vitali 2016 longhorned beetle
GPIH 4590 (Groehn 8500)
 Coleoptera - Chrysomelidae
Cryptocephalus groehni n. sp.17 Bukejs and Chamorro 2015 leaf beetle
GPIH Groehn C7996
Psyllototus groehni n. sp.22 Bukejs and Nadein 2014 flea beetle
Groehn C 4074
Psyllototus doeberli22 Bukejs and Nadein 2013 flea beetle
Groehn C 8048
Crepidodera decolorata16 Nadein and Perkovsky 2010 flea beetle
GPIH 4943C, 1464C
Crepidodera tertiotertiaria n. sp.16 Bukejs et al. 2016 flea beetle
GPIH 1045C, 4436C, 2340C, 1450C, 874C
Taphioporus rufous n. sp.21 Bukejs and Moseyko 2015 leaf beetle
GPIH C 8002
Taphioporus carsteni n. sp.21 Bukejs and Moseyko 2015 leaf beetle
GPIH C 923, C 1183
 Coleoptera - Curculionidae
Dorytomus groehni n. sp.20, Groehnius electrum n. gen. n. sp.19, Arostropsis groehni n. gen. n. sp.159
Dorytomus groehni n. sp.20 Bukejs and Legalov 2019 snout beetle
GPIH 8608
Groehnius electrum n. gen. n. sp.19 Bukejs and Legalov 2019 snout beetle
Gröhn 8607
Arostropsis groehni n. gen. n. sp.159 Yunakov and Kirejtshuk 2011 snout beetle
GPIH 4516 (C. Grohn 7968)
 Coleoptera - Attelabidae
Baltocar subnudus106 Riedel 2012 leaf rolling weevil
CGCG 7977
Baltocar hoffeinsorum n. sp.106 Riedel 2012 leaf rolling weevil
GPIH 4517 (CGCG 1127), 4518 (CGCG 1125)
Baltocar groehni n. sp.106 Riedel 2012 leaf rolling weevil
GPIH 4519 (GCGC 4264)
 Coleoptera - Cimberididae
Kuschelomacer kerneggeri105 Riedel 2010 weevil
GPIH 4520 (Grohn 7958)
 Coleoptera - Anthribidae
"Glaesotropis weitschati n. gen. n. sp." = Glaesotropis (Glaesotropis) weitschati43
"Glaesotropis weitschati n. gen. n. sp." = Glaesotropis (Glaesotropis) weitschati43 Gratshev and Zherikhin 1995 fungus weevil
GPIH 3630
 Coleoptera - Jacobsoniidae
Derolathrus groehni n. sp.23 Cai et al. 2016 beetle
GPIH 4570 (Groehn 8052), 4571 (Groehn 8260)
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Palaeopronyssiformia groehni n. gen. n. sp.136 Wiesner et al. 2017 tiger beetle
GPIH 4924 (Groehn 8155)
Pleurarthropterus (Balticarthropterus) aff. aterrimus81 Wasmann 1929 ant nest beetle
No. 45, 1503
Pleurarthropterus (Balticarthropterus) aff. balticus81 Wasmann 1926 ant nest beetle
No. 1494
Cerapterites sp.81 Wasmann 1926 ant nest beetle
No. 1600
? Cerapterites sp.81 Wasmann 1926 ant nest beetle
No 388
Loricera electrica n. sp.67 Klausnitzer 2003 ground beetle
Grohn 1680
Loricera groehni n. sp.24 Cai et al. 2017 ground beetle
GPIH 4587 (Groehn 7792)
 Coleoptera - Dytiscidae
Hydroporinae "indet. 2"9 Aubé 1836 predaceous diving beetle
Groehn C4543
Hydroporus carstengroehni n. sp.9 Balke et al. 2010 predaceous diving beetle
GPIH 4524 (Groehn C4554)
"Derovatellus rostratus" = Glessaria rostrata67 Koch and Berendt 1854 predaceous diving beetle
GPIH 4335 (Grohn 1398)
 Coleoptera - Cupedidae
Cupes weitschati n. sp.65 Kirejtshuk 2005 reticulated beetle
GPIH 4422 (Grohn 4261)
Cupes groehni n. sp.65 Kirejtshuk 2005 reticulated beetle
GPIH 4420 (Grohn 4071), 4421 (Grohn 4318)
Cupes tesselatus65 Motschulsky 1856 reticulated beetle
GPIH 4422 (Grohn 4225)
Cupes rohdendorfi65 Yablokov-Khnzorian 1960 reticulated beetle
Grohn 650, GPIH 22
 Strepsiptera - Myrmecolacidae
Caenocholax groehni n. sp.61, "Stichotrema weitschati n. sp." = Palaeomyrmecolax weitschati64
Caenocholax groehni n. sp.61 Kathirithamby and Henderickx 2008 twisted-winged parasite
GPIH 4495
"Stichotrema weitschati n. sp." = Palaeomyrmecolax weitschati64 Kinzelbach and Pohl 1994 twisted-winged parasite
SGPIHM 3117 (second in Pohl & Kinzelbach 1995)
 Siphonaptera - Ctenophthalmidae
Palaeopsylla groehni n. sp.12 Beaucournu 2003 flea
Groehn 2732
 Mecoptera - Panorpodidae
Panorpodes weitschati n. sp.113 Soszyńska-Maj and Krzemiński 2013 short-faced scorpionfly
GPIM UH 192
 Diptera - Chironomidae
Zalutschia electra n. sp.134 Seredszus and Wichard 2009 non biting midge
GPIH Grohn D2340
 Diptera - Culicidae
"Aedes (Finlaya) damzeni n. sp." = Eoaedes damzeni116
"Aedes (Finlaya) damzeni n. sp." = Eoaedes damzeni116 Szadziewski 1998 mosquito
 Diptera - Chaoboridae
Palaeomochlonyx aestimabilis134 Seredszus and Wichard 2009 phantom midge
GPIH Grohn 1786
Gedanoborus resinatus n. sp.134 Seredszus and Wichard 2009 phantom midge
GPIH Grohn 1730
 Diptera - Conopidae
Palaeomyopa tertiaria115 Meunier 1912 thick-headed fly
Grohn 1782, 1875
Palaeomyopa hennigi n. sp.115 Stuke 2003 thick-headed fly
GPIH 4361
 Diptera - Camillidae
Protocamilla groehni n. sp.44 Grimaldi 2008 fly
GPIH 4500 (Grohn 1801)
 Diptera - Diopsidae
Prosphyracephala succini73 Loew 1873 stalk-eyed fly
 Diptera - Pipunculidae
Metanephrocerus groehni n. sp.63 Kehlmaier and Skevington 2014 big-headed fly
Grohn 1895
 Diptera - Cecidomyiidae
Frirenia manca n. sp.36
Frirenia manca n. sp.36 Fedotova and Perkovsky 2009 gall midge
GPIC 4506 (Grohn 651)
 Diptera - Limoniidae
Dactylolabis (Eolabis) ambustus88 Podenas 2005 crane fly
GPIH 4353
Helius mutus n. sp.86 Podenas 2002 crane fly
GPIH 4352 (ex. Damzen coll.)
Eloeophila moba87 Podenas 2003 crane fly
GPIH 4362
 Trichoptera - Hydroptilidae
Agraylea spathifera124 Ulmer 1912 microcaddisfly
u501 (Museum Hamburg)
 Trichoptera - Phryganeidae
Phryganea egregia124 Ulmer 1912 large caddisfly
u502 (Museum Hamburg)
 Trichoptera - Helicopsychidae
Helicopsyche damseni n. sp.131, "Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis" = Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis60, "Palaeohelicopsyche groteae n. sp." = Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis60
Helicopsyche damseni n. sp.131 Wichard 2013 snail-case caddisfly
"Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis" = Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis60 Ulmer 1912 snail-case caddisfly
GPIH 3777
"Palaeohelicopsyche groteae n. sp." = Palaeohelicopsyche serricornis60 Ulmer 1912 snail-case caddisfly
GPIH 3776
 Trichoptera - Leptoceridae
Perissomyia sulcata131 Ulmer 1912 long-horned caddisfly
Grohn 1581
 Trichoptera - Polycentropodidae
Plectrocnemia lata124 Pictet and Hagen 1856 caddisfly
Nyctiophylax endrusseiti n. sp.135 Wichard and Weitschat 1996 caddisfly
 Trichoptera - Psychomyiidae
Lype sericea124 Pictet and Hagen 1856 caddisfly
 Megaloptera - Corydalidae
Chauliodes carsteni n. sp.130 Wichard 2003 fishfly
GPIH 4310
 Megaloptera - Sialidae
Sialis groehni n. sp.129
Sialis groehni n. sp.129 Wichard 1997 alderfly
Grohn 826
 Neuroptera - Coniopterygidae
Parasemidalis sp.117 Enderlein 1905 dustywing
Groehn 2779
Semidalis fritschi117 Enderlein 1930 dustywing
Groehn 2888
 Neuroptera - Hemerobiidae
Prolachlanius resinatus77 Hagen 1856 brown lacewing
GPIH 4994 (Gröhn 7322)
Sympherobius siriae n. sp.59 Jepson et al. 2010 brown lacewing
GPIH 4665
 Neuroptera - Nevrorthidae
Electroneurorthus malickyi n. gen. n. sp.133 Wichard et al. 2010 lacewing
GPIMH Grohn 7078
Proberotha dichotoma n. sp.132 Wichard 2016 lacewing
GPIH Groehn 7156
Proberotha prisca132 Krüger 1923 lacewing
Groehn 7074
Palaeoneurorthus bifurcatus n. sp.134 Wichard 2009 lacewing
GPIH 4523
Palaeoneurorthus groehni n. sp.133 Wichard et al. 2010 lacewing
GPIMH Grohn 7081
 Neuroptera - Sisyridae
Paleosisyra electrobaltica n. sp.134 Wichard 2009 spongillafly
GPIH 4522
 Neuroptera - Berothidae
Elektroberotha groehni n. gen. n. sp.76
Elektroberotha groehni n. gen. n. sp.76 Makarkin and Ohl 2015 beaded lacewing
GPIH 4550 (Groehn 7069)
 Ephemeroptera - Acanthametropodidae
Analetris secundus n. sp.39 Godunko and Klonowska-Olejnik 2006 mayfly
SGPIH 4635
 Ephemeroptera - Metretopodidae
Siphloplecton barabani114 Staniczek and Godunko 2012 mayfly
Groehn 2803
 Ephemeroptera - Heptageniidae
Ecdyonurus (Nestormeus) groehnorum n. sp.38 Godunko 2007 stream mayfly
GPIH 4451 (coll. Grohn 76)
 Odonata -
Zygoptera "indet. specimen 6"13 Selys-Longchamps 1854 damselfly
exuvia; Grohn 7513
Zygoptera "indet. specimen 7"13 Selys-Longchamps 1854 damselfly
nymph
 Odonata - Hypolestidae
Hypolestini "indet. specimen 16"13 Tillyard and Fraser 1938 damselfly
No 6902
Arachnida
 Parasitiformes - Urodinychidae
? Uroobovella sp.34 Berlese 1903 tortoise mite
GPIH 0425
 Araneae - Archaeidae
Archaea paradoxa145 Koch and Berendt 1854 spider
Myrmecarchaea petiolus n. gen. n. sp.145 Wunderlich 2004 spider
Myrmecarchaea pediculus n. sp.145 Wunderlich 2004 spider
GPIH 3907
 Araneae - Spatiatoridae
Spatiator praeceps145 Petrunkevitch 1942 spider
GPIH 4301 (Grohn 3923)
 Araneae - Uloboridae
? Eomiagrammopes sp.147 Wunderlich 2004 hackled orb-weaver
Eomiagrammopes spinipes147 Wunderlich 2004 hackled orb-weaver
 Araneae - Phrurolithidae
Ablator triguttatus152 Koch and Berendt 1854 spider
Protoorthobula bifida152 Wunderlich 2004 spider
 Araneae - Salticidae
Eolinus sp.155 Petrunkevitch 1942 spider
Almolinus ligula155 Wunderlich 2004 spider
 Araneae - Trochanteriidae
Eotrochanteria kruegeri n. gen. n. sp.153
Eotrochanteria kruegeri n. gen. n. sp.153 Wunderlich 2004 spider
 Araneae - Thomisidae
Syphax megacephalus154 Koch and Berendt 1854 crab spider
Groehn 2124
 Araneae - Oecobiidae
Mizalia sp.146 Koch and Berendt 1854 disc web spider
 Araneae - Hersiliidae
Hersiliidae "indet. 1"146 Thorell 1870 tree trunk spider
GPIH 1683
 Araneae - Nesticidae
Balticonesticus flexuosus n. gen. n. sp.138
Balticonesticus flexuosus n. gen. n. sp.138 Wunderlich 1986 cave cobweb spider
GPIH 2557
 Araneae - Araneidae
Eochorizopes szeklinskiae156 Wunderlich 2008 orb-weaving spider
GPIH 4407 (donated by E. Szeklinski)
 Araneae - Mimetidae
? Mimetus brevipes n. sp.151 Wunderlich 2004 pirate spider
coll. P.C. Voigt
 Araneae - Theridiidae
Lasaeola sp.157 Simon 1881 cobweb spider
Grohn 5910
Lasaeola (Nactodipoena) dunbari157 Petrunkevitch 1942 cobweb spider
Pseudoteutana stigmatosa157 Koch and Berendt 1854 cobweb spider
Vicipholcomma spiralis n. gen. n. sp.157 Wunderlich 2008 cobweb spider
GPIH 4632
Ulesanis longicymbium157 Wunderlich 2008 cobweb spider
Grohn 2957
Unispinatoda aculeata157 Wunderlich 2008 cobweb spider
Eomysmena sp.157 Petrunkevitch 1942 cobweb spider
coll. Herrling
Clya obscura157 Koch and Berendt 1854 cobweb spider
 Araneae - Cyatholipidae
Spinilipus kerneggeri n. gen. n. sp.140, Succinilipus sp.149, Succinilipus teuberi n. gen. n. sp.140
Spinilipus kerneggeri n. gen. n. sp.140 Wunderlich 1993 spider
GPIN 3598 (coll. Kernegger)
Succinilipus sp.149 Wunderlich 1993 spider
Succinilipus teuberi n. gen. n. sp.140 Wunderlich 1993 spider
coll. Teuber
 Araneae - Synotaxidae
Eosynotaxus paucispina n. sp.150 Wunderlich 2004 spider
 Araneae - Linyphiidae
"Lepthyphantes lamellatus n. sp." = Custodela lamellata139
"Lepthyphantes lamellatus n. sp." = Custodela lamellata139 Wunderlich 1988 money spider/sheet weaver
Described from "Dominican amber" - actually Baltic amber (Wunderlich, 2004)
 Araneae - Anapidae
Balticoroma serafinorum148 Wunderlich 2004 spider
9 in Grohn 3925; 7 in Grohn 256
Balticoroma ernstorum148 Wunderlich 2004 spider
Grohn 2176
Balticoroma wheateri n. sp.84 Penney and Marusik 2011 spider
GPIH 4666
Balticoroma reschi n. sp.148 Wunderlich 2004 spider
 Araneae - Hahniidae
Hahniidae indet.148 Bertkau 1878 spider
Grohn 256
Eohahnia succini148 Petrunkevitch 1958 spider
Grohn 3925
 Araneae - Tetrablemmidae
Balticoblemma unicorniculum144 Wunderlich 2004 armored spider
Grohn 942
 Araneae - Oonopidae
"Orchestina crassitibialis n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) crassitibialis137, "Orchestina cochlembolus n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) cochlembolus137, "Orchestina furca n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) furca137, Orchestina crassiembolus n. sp.137, Orchestina forceps n. sp.137, Orchestina tuberosa n. sp.137, Orchestina breviembolus n. sp.137, Orchestina baltica137
"Orchestina crassitibialis n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) crassitibialis137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2533
"Orchestina cochlembolus n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) cochlembolus137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2522
"Orchestina furca n. sp." = Orchestina (Baltorchestina) furca137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2502, 2503, 2519(x2)
Orchestina crassiembolus n. sp.137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2521(x2)
Orchestina forceps n. sp.137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2524
Orchestina tuberosa n. sp.137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2523
Orchestina breviembolus n. sp.137 Wunderlich 1981 goblin spider
GPIH 2501, 2518, 2526
Orchestina baltica137 Petrunkevitch 1942 goblin spider
 Araneae - Dysderidae
Harpactea communis144 Wunderlich 2004 woodlouse hunter spider
Grohn 3914
 Araneae - Pholcidae
Paraspermophora perplexa n. gen. n. sp.144
Paraspermophora perplexa n. gen. n. sp.144 Wunderlich 2004 daddy long-legs spider
 Araneae - Scytodidae
Scytodes weitschati n. sp.141 Wunderlich 1993 spitting spider
GPIH 3597
 Araneae - Dipluridae
Dipluridae "indet. 1"143 Simon 1889 funnel-web tarantula
GPIH 1424
Clostes ? priscus158 Menge 1869 funnel-web tarantula
GPIH 4487 (Grohn 5946), GPIH old no. 687 in Wunderlich 2004
 Araneae - Halonoproctidae
Ummidia sp.142 Thorell 1875 spider
and old no. 559 in Wunderlich 2004
Ummidia damzeni n. sp.142 Wunderlich 2000 spider
 Solifugae - Daesiidae
Palaeoblossia groehni n. gen. n. sp.35
Palaeoblossia groehni n. gen. n. sp.35 Dunlop et al. 2004 camel spider
GPIH 4312
 Acariformes - Smarididae
Fessonia groehni n. sp.11 Bartel et al. 2015 mite
GPIH 4579 (Groehn 2112)
Fessonia wunderlichi11 Bartel et al. 2015 mite
GPIH 4577 (Groehn 6220), Groehn 6224
Myriapoda
 Glomerida - Glomerididae
Hyleoglomeris groehni n. sp.128 Wesener 2019 millipede
GPIH 4931 (Gröhn 7276)
1Abdullah 1967; 2Aguiar and Janzen 2000; 3Alekseev and Alekseev 2019; 4Alekseev and Bukejs 2017; 5Andersen 2000; 6Andersen 2003; 7Anisyutkin 2008; 8Anisyutkin and Gröhn 2012; 9Balke et al. 2010; 10Baroni Urbani 2000; 11Bartel et al. 2015; 12Beaucournu 2003; 13Bechly and Wichard 2008; 14Brothers and Janzen 1999; 15Bukejs et al. 2015; 16Bukejs et al. 2016; 17Bukejs and Chamorro 2015; 18Bukejs and Háva 2018; 19Bukejs and Legalov 2019; 20Bukejs and Legalov 2019; 21Bukejs and Moseyko 2015; 22Bukejs and Nadein 2014; 23Cai et al. 2016; 24Cai et al. 2017; 25Cai et al. 2016; 26Caruso and Wichard 2010; 27Dlussky 2008; 28Dlussky 2008; 29Dlussky 2009; 30Dlussky 2010; 31Dlussky and Dubovikoff 2013; 32Dlussky and Radchenko 2006; 33Dlussky et al. 2009; 34Dunlop et al. 2013; 35Dunlop et al. 2004; 36Fedotova and Perkovsky 2009; 37Gebicki and Szwedo 2006; 38Godunko 2007; 39Godunko and Klonowska-Olejnik 2006; 40Golub 2001; 41Golub and Popov 2002; 42Golub and Popov 2005; 43Gratshev and Zherikhin 1995; 44Grimaldi 2008; 45Háva and Bukejs 2018; 46Háva et al. 2006; 47Háva et al. 2008; 48Háva and Zahradník 2019; 49Heiss 2000; 50Heiss 2001; 51Heiss 2009; 52Heiss and Golub 2013; 53Heiss and Golub 2015; 54Heiss and Popov 2002; 55Herczek 2000; 56Herczek and Popov 2005; 57Herczek and Popov 2009; 58Herczek and Popov 2014; 59Jepson et al. 2010; 60Johanson and Wichard 1997; 61Kathirithamby and Henderickx 2008; 62Kaupp et al. 2001; 63Kehlmaier et al. 2014; 64Kinzelbach and Pohl 1994; 65Kirejtshuk 2005; 66Kirejtshuk and Kurochkin 2010; 67Klausnitzer 2003; 68Klausnitzer 2004; 69Klausnitzer 2009; 70Klausnitzer 2012; 71Klimaszewski 1997; 72Koteja 2008; 73Kotrba 2009; 74Kurochkin and Kirejtshuk 2010; 75LaPolla and Dlussky 2010; 76Makarkin and Ohl 2015; 77Makarkin et al. 2019; 78Nabozhenko et al. 2019; 79Nabozhenko and Chigray 2018; 80Nabozhenko et al. 2016; 81Nagel 1987; 82Olmi and Bechly 2001; 83Olmi and Guglielmino 2012; 84Penney et al. 2011; 85Perkovsky and Lyubarsky 2014; 86Podenas 2002; 87Podenas 2003; 88Podenas 2005; 89Polilov and Perkovsky 2004; 90Popov 2001; 91Popov 2003; 92Popov 2004; 93Popov and Herczek 2001; 94Popov and Herczek 2006; 95Popov et al. 2011; 96Puthz 2010; 97Putshkov and Popov 1995; 98Radchenko and Dlussky 2016; 99Radchenko and Dlussky 2017; 100Radchenko and Dlussky 2017; 101Radchenko and Dlussky 2018; 102Radchenko et al. 2019; 103Reike 2012; 104Reike et al. 2017; 105Riedel 2010; 106Riedel et al. 2012; 107Schedl 2007; 108Schimmel 2005; 109Schliephake 2003; 110Schülke 2000; 111Sergi et al. 2013; 112Soldati and Nabozhenko 2017; 113Soszyńska-Maj and Krzemiński 2013; 114Staniczek and Godunko 2016; 115Stuke 2003; 116Szadziewski 1998; 117Sziráki and Gröhn 2015; 118Szwedo 2005; 119Szwedo and Stroiński 2002; 120Szwedo and Stroinski 2001; 121Szwedo and Stroinski 2013; 122Telnov and Bukejs 2019; 123Tolkanitz and Perkovsky 2015; 124Ulmer 1912; 125Vitali 2016; 126Wegierek et al. 2015; 127Wegierek and Żyła 2011; 128Wesener 2019; 129Wichard 1997; 130Wichard 2003; 131Wichard 2013; 132Wichard 2016; 133Wichard et al. 2010; 134Wichard et al. 2009; 135Wichard and Weitschat 1996; 136Wiesner et al. 2017; 137Wunderlich 1981; 138Wunderlich 1986; 139Wunderlich 1988; 140Wunderlich 1993; 141Wunderlich 1993; 142Wunderlich 2000; 143Wunderlich 2004; 144Wunderlich 2004; 145Wunderlich 2004; 146Wunderlich 2004; 147Wunderlich 2004; 148Wunderlich 2004; 149Wunderlich 2004; 150Wunderlich 2004; 151Wunderlich 2004; 152Wunderlich 2004; 153Wunderlich 2004; 154Wunderlich 2004; 155Wunderlich 2004; 156Wunderlich 2008; 157Wunderlich 2008; 158Wunderlich 2011; 159Yunakov and Kirejtshuk 2011; 160Zahradník and Háva 2015; 161Zahradník and Háva 2017; 162Zhantiev 2006; 163Zompro 2001; 164Zompro 2005