Crato (AMNH collection) (Cretaceous of Brazil)

Where: Ceará, Brazil (7.1° S, 39.7° W: paleocoordinates 8.6° S, 8.0° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Crato Formation (Santana Group), Late/Upper Aptian (122.5 - 113.0 Ma)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - large; lithified carbonate

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: adpression

Collected by Herbert Axelrod; reposited in the AMNH

Collection methods: surface (in situ)

• Holotypes and some voucher specimens have been returned to Brazil. They are deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo.

Primary reference: D. A. Grimaldi. 1990. Insects from the Santana formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 195:1-191 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 122352: authorized by Matthew Clapham, entered by Matthew Clapham on 22.12.2011, edited by Jered Karr

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Arachnida
 Scorpiones - Protoischnuridae
Protoischnurus axelrodorum4 de Carvalho and Lourenço 2001 scorpion
AMNH SF-Chel1(2a), SF-Chel2(2b), SF-Chel3(3), SF-Chel4(4), SF-Chel6(7)
Insecta
 Diptera - Therevidae
? Therevidae indet.7 Newman 1834 stiletto fly
AMNH 43511
 Diptera - Asilidae
Araripogon "sp. 2?"7 Grimaldi 1990 robber fly
AMNH 43512
Araripogon axelrodi n. gen. n. sp.7 Grimaldi 1990 robber fly
AMNH 43514,43507
 Diptera - Bibionidae
? Bibionidae indet.7 Fleming 1821 march fly
AMNH 43504
 Diptera -
Sciaroidea indet.7 Billberg 1820 fungus gnat
AMNH 43505,43506
 Diptera - Mycetophilidae
Mycetophilidae indet.7 Newman 1834 fungus gnat
AMNH 43502
 Diptera -
? Tipulomorpha indet.7 fly
AMNH 43501
 Diptera - Tipulidae
Tipulidae indet.7 Latreille 1802 crane fly
AMNH 43500
Leptotarsus grimaldii n. sp.22 Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014 crane fly
AMNH SA 46358, 46366
Leptotarsus cretaceus n. sp.22 Ribeiro and Lukashevich 2014 crane fly
AMNH SA 46354
 Diptera -
Chironomoidea indet.7 Macquart 1838 fly
AMNH 43503
 Odonata - Protoneuridae
Eoprotoneura hyperstigma n. gen. n. sp.1
Eoprotoneura hyperstigma n. gen. n. sp.1 Carle and Wighton 1990 damselfly
AMNH 44201-44203
 Odonata - Thaumatoneuridae
Euarchistigma atrophium n. gen. n. sp.1
Euarchistigma atrophium n. gen. n. sp.1 Carle and Wighton 1990 damselfly
AMNH 44204
 Odonata - Aeschnidiidae
Wightonia araripina n. gen. n. sp.1
Wightonia araripina n. gen. n. sp.1 Carle and Wighton 1990 small darner
5 in Bechly, 1998
 Odonata - Nothomacromiidae
"Pseudomacromia sensibilis n. gen. n. sp." = Nothomacromia sensibilis1
"Pseudomacromia sensibilis n. gen. n. sp." = Nothomacromia sensibilis1 Carle and Wighton 1990 true dragonfly
larva
 Odonata - Gomphaeschnidae
"Gomphaeschna obliqua n. sp." = Gomphaeschnaoides obliquus27
"Gomphaeschna obliqua n. sp." = Gomphaeschnaoides obliquus27 Wighton 1987 true dragonfly
AMNH 43257
 Odonata - Proterogomphidae
Cordulagomphus fenestratus n. sp.1 Carle and Wighton 1990 true dragonfly
Cordulagomphus tuberculatus n. gen. n. sp.1 Carle and Wighton 1990 true dragonfly
 Ephemerida -
Cretereisma sp.13 Willmann 2007 mayfly
Figured by Grimaldi & Engel (2005, fig 6.13)
 Dicondylia -
Ephemeroptera "incertae sedis sp. 1"18 Hyatt and Arms 1890 mayfly
larva
Ephemeroptera "incertae sedis sp. 2"18 Hyatt and Arms 1890 mayfly
larva
 Ephemeroptera - Hexagenitidae
"Siphgondwanus occidentalis n. gen. n. sp." = Protoligoneuria limai18, "Palaeobaetodes costalimai" = Protoligoneuria limai15, Protoligoneuria heloisae n. sp.23
"Siphgondwanus occidentalis n. gen. n. sp." = Protoligoneuria limai18 Demoulin 1955 mayfly
larvae
"Palaeobaetodes costalimai" = Protoligoneuria limai15 Demoulin 1955 mayfly
larvae
Protoligoneuria heloisae n. sp.23 Storari et al. 2021 mayfly
AMNH 43499 (adult paratype of Colocrus indivicum)
 Ephemeroptera -
Ephemeroidea "sp. 1"18 Latreille 1810 mayfly
alate (adult)
Ephemeroidea "sp. 2"18 Latreille 1810 mayfly
alate (? adult female)
 Ephemeroptera - Australiphemeridae
Microphemera neotropica n. gen. n. sp.18, Australiphemera revelata n. gen. n. sp.18
Microphemera neotropica n. gen. n. sp.18 McCafferty 1990 mayfly
adult
Australiphemera revelata n. gen. n. sp.18 McCafferty 1990 mayfly
adult
 Ephemeroptera - Siphlonuridae
? Siphlonuridae "sp. 1"18 Albarda 1888 mayfly
alate (adult)
? Siphlonuridae "sp. 2"18 Albarda 1888 mayfly
alate (adult) female
? Siphlonuridae "sp. 3"18 Albarda 1888 mayfly
alate (?adult)
 Ephemeroptera - Leptophlebiidae
? Leptophlebiidae "sp. 1"18 Banks 1900 mayfly
larva
? Leptophlebiidae "sp. 2"18 Banks 1900 mayfly
alate (? adult female)
? Leptophlebiidae "sp. 3"18 Banks 1900 mayfly
alate (? adult female)
 Ephemeroptera - Euthyplociidae
Pristiplocia rupestris n. gen. n. sp.18
Pristiplocia rupestris n. gen. n. sp.18 McCafferty 1990 mayfly
adult
 Ephemeroptera - Oligoneuriidae
Colocrus indivicum n. gen. n. sp.18
Colocrus indivicum n. gen. n. sp.18 McCafferty 1990 mayfly
AMNH 43484
 Neuroptera - Chrysopidae
Limaia adicotomica n. sp.16 Martins-Neto 1997 green lacewing
AMNH 44402
 Neuroptera - Mesochrysopidae
Karenina breviptera n. gen. n. sp.16
Karenina breviptera n. gen. n. sp.16 Martins-Neto 1997 lacewing
AMNH 44411
 Neuroptera - Myrmeleontidae
Pseudonymphes ponomarenkoi16 Martins-Neto 1992 antlion
AMNH 44401
Blittersdorffia polyplusia n. sp.16 Martins-Neto 1997 antlion
AMNH 43288
Blittersdorffia pleoneura16 Martins-Neto and Vulcano 1989 antlion
AMNH 44410
 Neuroptera - Myrmeleontoidae
"Caririneura damianii" = Araripeneura damianii16, "Neurastenyx polyhymnia n. sp." = Baisopardus polyhymnia16
"Caririneura damianii" = Araripeneura damianii16 Martins-Neto 1992 lacewing
AMNH 43289
"Neurastenyx polyhymnia n. sp." = Baisopardus polyhymnia16 Martins-Neto 1997 lacewing
AMNH 44412
 Dicondylia -
Raphidioptera indet.20 Handlirsch 1908 snakefly
AMNH 44406
 Raphidioptera - Baissopteridae
Baissoptera brasiliensis n. sp.20 Oswald 1990 snakefly
AMNH 43287,44400/44407
 Coleoptera - Mastigocoleidae
Mastigocoleus rhinoceros24 Tihelka and Cai 2022 beetle
AMNH SA43296
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
? Paederinae indet.2 Fleming 1821 rove beetle
AMNH SA46246
Cryptobiina indet.2 Casey 1905 rove beetle
AMNH SA46271
 Coleoptera - Nemonychidae
Brasilnemonyx zherichini n. gen. n. sp.12 Legalov 2009 pine flower snout beetle
AMNH 43316
Cratomacer immersus n. gen. n. sp.28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 pine flower snout beetle
AMNH 43313, 43291, 43311, 43314, 44150, 44159, 73631 All complete bodies
Cratomacer ephippiger n. sp.28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 pine flower snout beetle
AMNH 73630, 73629
Cratomacer cf. ephippiger28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 pine flower snout beetle
AMNH 43317
 Coleoptera - Brentidae
Axelrodiellus ruptus n. gen. n. sp.28
Axelrodiellus ruptus n. gen. n. sp.28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 weevil
AMNH 43312
 Coleoptera - Caridae
Martinsnetoa dubia n. gen. n. sp.28
Martinsnetoa dubia n. gen. n. sp.28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 weevil
AMNH 43315
 Coleoptera - Belidae
Davidibelus cearensis n. gen. n. sp.28
Davidibelus cearensis n. gen. n. sp.28 Zherikhin and Gratshev 2004 weevil
AMNH 73628
 Hymenoptera - Sepulcidae
Prosyntexis gouleti n. gen. n. sp.3
Prosyntexis gouleti n. gen. n. sp.3 Sharkey 1990 stem sawfly
AMNH 43270
 Hymenoptera -
Aculeata indet.3 wasp
AMNH 43274,44100
 Hymenoptera - Thynnidae
Architiphia rasnitsyni n. gen. n. sp.3
Architiphia rasnitsyni n. gen. n. sp.3 Darling 1990 wasp
AMNH 43265
 Hymenoptera - Angarosphecidae
"Cretosphex magnus" = Angarosphex magnus3, "Cretosphex parvus n. sp." = Angarosphex parvus3, Mesorhopalosoma cearae n. gen. n. sp.3
"Cretosphex magnus" = Angarosphex magnus3 Darling 1990 apoid wasp
AMNH 43267,44107
"Cretosphex parvus n. sp." = Angarosphex parvus3 Darling 1990 apoid wasp
AMNH 43264,44104,44106
Mesorhopalosoma cearae n. gen. n. sp.3 Darling 1990 apoid wasp
AMNH 43266,43276,44103,44109
 Hymenoptera - Ampulicidae
"? Ampulicinae indet." = Ampulicidae3
"? Ampulicinae indet." = Ampulicidae3 Shuckard 1840 cockroach wasp
AMNH 44108
 Hymenoptera - Ephialtitidae
"Karataus kourios n. sp." = Cratephialtites kourios3
"Karataus kourios n. sp." = Cratephialtites kourios3 Sharkey 1990 wasp
AMNH 43268,43269
 Hymenoptera - Mesoserphidae
Mesoserphidae indet.3 Kozlov 1970 wasp
AMNH 43272
 Hymenoptera - Proctotrupidae
Protoprocto asodes n. gen. n. sp.3
Protoprocto asodes n. gen. n. sp.3 Sharkey 1990 wasp
AMNH 44101
 Hemiptera -
Megaleurodes megocellata n. gen. n. sp.10
Megaleurodes megocellata n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
 Hemiptera - Achilidae
Acixiites costalis n. sp.10, Acixiites immodesta n. gen. n. sp.10
Acixiites costalis n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 achilid planthopper
Acixiites immodesta n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 achilid planthopper
 Hemiptera - Lalacidae
Carpopodus "sp. A"10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Carpopodus "sp. B"10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Carpopodus difficilis n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Vulcanoia sp.10 Martins-Neto 1988 planthopper
Vulcanoia apicalis n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Vulcanoia acuceps n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Psestocixius fuscus n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Psestocixius delphax n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Lalax sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Lalax mutabilis n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
? Patulopes sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Patulopes setosa n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Patulopes myndoides n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
? Kinnarocixius sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Kinnarocixius quassus n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Ancorale sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Ancorale aschemon n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Ancorale flaccidum n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Protodelphax sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Protodelphax chamus n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Protodelphax miles n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Protodelphax rhinion n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
Protodelphax macroceps n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 planthopper
 Hemiptera - Cixiidae
? Cixiidae indet.10 Spinola 1839 cixiid planthopper
 Hemiptera - Cercopionidae
Cercopion reticulata n. gen. n. sp.10
Cercopion reticulata n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 froghopper
 Hemiptera - Tettigarctidae
Architettix compacta n. gen. n. sp.10
Architettix compacta n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 hairy cicada
Includes one nymph questionably assigned
 Hemiptera - Myerslopiidae
Ovojassus minor n. sp.10, Ovojassus concavifer n. gen. n. sp.10
Ovojassus minor n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Ovojassus concavifer n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
 Hemiptera - Cicadellidae
Paracarsonus aphrodoides n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Platyjassites sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Platyjassites inflatifrons n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
? Proerrhomus "sp. A"10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
? Proerrhomus "sp. B"10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Proerrhomus rugosus n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Hallex xestocephalus n. gen. n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Hallex gracilior n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Hallex laticeps n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Hallex brevipes n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
Hallex gongrogony n. sp.10 Hamilton 1990 leafhopper
 Hemiptera - Hydrometridae
Cretaceometra brasiliensis19 Nel and Popov 2000 marsh treader
 Dermaptera - Anisolabididae
Cretolabia cearae n. gen. n. sp.21, Kotejalabis goethitica n. gen. n. sp.6
Cretolabia cearae n. gen. n. sp.21 Popham 1990 earwig
Kotejalabis goethitica n. gen. n. sp.6 Engel and Chatzimanolis 2005 earwig
 Dermaptera -
"Cordulagomphus santanensis n. sp." = Caririlabia santanensis1
"Cordulagomphus santanensis n. sp." = Caririlabia santanensis1 Carle and Wighton 1990 earwig
 Orthoptera - Locustopsidae
Cratozeunerella godoii17 Martins-Neto 2003 grasshopper
AMNH-43868
 Orthoptera - Baissogryllidae
"Cearagryllus cf. perforatorius" = Cearagrylloides perforatorius14
"Cearagryllus cf. perforatorius" = Cearagrylloides perforatorius14 Martins-Neto 1991 grasshopper
AMNH-43892
 Orthoptera - Elcanidae
Cratoelcana damianii14 Martins-Neto 1991 grasshopper
Cratoelcana zessini14 Martins-Neto 1991 grasshopper
AMNH-43878, 43883
 Mantodea - Santanmantidae
Santanmantis axelrodi n. gen. n. sp.8
Santanmantis axelrodi n. gen. n. sp.8 Grimaldi 2003 mantis
AMNH 1956, 1957
 Blattodea - Blattulidae
"Elisama americana n. sp." = Elisama brevis26
"Elisama americana n. sp." = Elisama brevis26 Mendes 2000 cockroach
AMNH XX
 Blattodea - Cratomastotermitidae
Cratomastotermes wolfschwenningeri9 Bechly 2007 termite
AMNH Sa-11
 Blattodea -
Meiatermes hariolus n. sp.9 Grimaldi 2008 termite
AMNH Sa-122
Meiatermes araripena n. gen. n. sp.11 Krishna 1990 termite
AMNH 43901-3; 13 in Grimaldi et al. AMNH Sa-17,8,11,12,14,15,16,21,25,27,28,29,30
Mariconitermes talicei9 Fontes and Vulcano 1998 termite
AMNH Sa-12, 15
 Alienoptera - Umenocoleidae
Ponopterix axelrodi n. gen. n. sp.25
Ponopterix axelrodi n. gen. n. sp.25 Vršanský and Grimaldi 1999 winged insect
AMNH 43800, 405, 434, 451, 498, 43306, 43360, 43801, 43803, 43963, 43999, 1*-6*, 8*-11*
 Dicondylia - Chresmodidae
Chresmoda neotropica5 Engel and Heads 2008 winged insect
AMNH SA-46446