Kleinkembs (Oligocene of Germany)

Where: Germany (47.7° N, 7.5° E: paleocoordinates 47.1° N, 4.0° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Middle Member (Salt Formation), Early/Lower Oligocene (33.9 - 28.4 Ma)

• "In spite of abundant fossils, index fossils are rare and, hence, the stratigraphical position of the Salt Formation members has not been totally clarified yet. The most authors regard the Fossiliferous Zone as Earliest Oligocene [29]. Schuler [43] postulates the lower part of the member to be Latest Eocene in age. A biostratigraphical age based on mammals in the hanging Haustein member (Upper Salt Formation) of the ‘Rebberg’ quarry about 35 m above the horizon of discovery covers the time interval of the Mammal Reference Level MP21 and corresponds to the Lower Stampian and Upper Priabonian, thus coinciding with Stehlin‘s ‘Grande coupure’ [47]. So the stratigraphical position of the Fossiliferous Zone member seems to be close to the Eocene–Oligocene boundary." Wappler et al., 2005

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - large; marl and limestone

• "the environmental conditions under which the host sediments formed are still a matter of debate. Some authors postulate a lagoonal, marine-influenced setting others favour a saline lake similar to the Lower Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA) as interpreted by Eugster and Surdam or Boyer." Wappler et al., 2005

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: adpression

Collection methods: Repository: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

Primary reference: N. Theobald. 1937. Les insectes fossiles des terrains oligocènes de France. Bulletin Mensuel (Mémoires) de la Société des Sciences de Nancy 1:1-473 [M. Clapham/J. Karr]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 122407: authorized by Matthew Clapham, entered by Jered Karr on 25.12.2011, edited by Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Insecta
 Hemiptera - Cicadidae
Platypleura sp. Amyot and Audinet-Serville 1843 cicada
Coll Mieg de Bale R 903
 Hemiptera - Aphrophoridae
Aphrophora sp. Germar 1821 spittle bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 1017
Aphrophora pulchra Förster 1891 spittle bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 918, 978
Aphrophora brevistylata n. sp. Theobald 1937 spittle bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 799
 Hemiptera - Cercopidae
Ptyelus marcatus n. sp. Theobald 1937 froghopper
Coll Mieg de Bale R 902
 Hemiptera -
Heteroptera indet. Latreille 1810 true bug
likely includes new species
 Hemiptera - Lygaeidae
Heterogaster cf. radobojanus Heer 1853 milkweed bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 947
Heterogaster sundgoviensis n. sp. Theobald 1937 milkweed bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 19
Aphanus contractus n. sp. Theobald 1937 milkweed bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 929(951), 1004(948)
 Hemiptera - Scutelleridae
Eurygaster granulosus Förster 1891 metallic shield bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 26
 Hemiptera - Pentatomidae
Eusarcoris nuda Förster 1891 stink bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 900(1011)
Eurydema retrorsum n. sp. Theobald 1937 stink bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 912(933)
 Hemiptera - Cydnidae
Cydnus brevicrassus Förster 1891 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 901(988), 904(986), 754
Cydnus tertiarius Heer 1853 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 917, 934
Cydnus cf. brevicollis Heer 1853 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 910
Cydnus dignus Förster 1891 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 646, 911(837), 940, 936, 931, 790
Cydnus solutus Förster 1891 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 969
Cydnus cf. pygmaeus Heer 1853 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 927, 910, 915, 944, 991, 704
Cydnus armiger Förster 1891 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 793(953), 943
Cydnus cf. sagittifer Heer 1853 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 977
Cydnus cf. archaicus Meunier 1915 burrowing bug
Cydnus cristatus n. sp. Theobald 1937 burrowing bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 923(1009)
 Hemiptera - Reduviidae
Nabis maculata Heer 1853 assassin bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 633
 Hemiptera - Gerridae
Gerris parabdominalis n. sp. Theobald 1937 water strider
Coll Mieg de Bale R 831, 164, 514
 Blattodea - Termopsidae
Termopsis gracilipennis n. sp. Theobald 1937 damp wood termite
Coll Mieg de Bale R 630
 Blattodea - Ectobiidae
Ectobius sp. Stephens 1835 cockroach
Coll Mieg de Bale R 783
 Orthoptera - Acrididae
Orthacanthacris rhenana n. sp. Theobald 1937 spur-throated grasshopper
Coll Mieg de Bale R 150
 Hymenoptera - Mutillidae
Methoca sp. Latreille velvet ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 20(636), 358(65)
 Hymenoptera - Formicidae
Formicidae indet. Latreille 1802 ant
Formicidae indet.1 Latreille 1802 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 759, 451
Drymomyrmex cf. fuscipennis Wheeler 1915 ant
Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus Wheeler 1915 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 331
Formica cf. sepulta Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 691
Formica tripartita n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Formica alsatica n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 565
Formica flori Mayr 1868 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 981, 555, 345, 608, 301
Camponotus mengei Mayr 1868 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 90, 431, 485
Camponotus vehemens Förster 1891 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 965, 656, 291
Oecophylla superba n. sp. Theobald 1937 weaver ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 402(411), 375, 79
Gesomyrmex miegi n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 75, 639
Dolichoderus oviformis n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 582, 586, 748
Dolichoderus bruneti n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 366, 499, 22, 333, 282
Dolichoderus affectus n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 49, 736(976)
Dolichoderus coquandi Theobald 1937 ant
Dolichoderus explicans Förster 1891 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 758(812)
Iridomyrmex breviantennis n. sp. Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 484(10)
"Iridomyrmex cf. geinitzi" = Yantaromyrmex geinitzi Mayr 1868 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 709, 518
"Iridomyrmex cf. goepperti" = Ctenobethylus goepperti Mayr 1868 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 289(73), 351(635), 28, 886(382), 28
"Myrmicidae indet." = Myrmicinae Lepeletier 1835 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 126, 188, 247, 738
"Aphaenogaster maculipes n. sp." = Paraphaenogaster maculipes Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 244, 510, 93
"Solenopsis major n. sp." = Solenopsis alena Ozdikmen 2010 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 750
Solenopsis maxima Förster 1891 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 724
Solenopsis superba Förster 1891 ant
Solenopsis blanda Förster 1891 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 277, 220
Solenopsis valida Förster 1891 ant
Solenopsis foersteri Theobald 1937 ant
Myrmicites sp. Förster 1891 ant
"Sima klebsi" = Tetraponera klebsi Wheeler 1915 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 509, 450
Platythyrea cf. primaeva Wheeler 1915 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 110
"Brachyponera dubia n. sp." = Pachycondyla dubia Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 749(2005)
"Euponera globiventris n. sp." = Pachycondyla globiventris Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 609, 682, 558
"Euponera cf. calcarea" = Pachycondyla calcarea Theobald 1937 ant
"Euponera calcarea n. sp." = Pachycondyla calcarea Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 147, 35, 116, 701
"Gesomyrmex expectans n. sp." = Eoformica expectans Theobald 1937 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 820
Lioponera sp. Mayr 1879 ant
Coll Mieg de Bale R 209
 Hymenoptera - Braconidae
Bracon diffusiventre n. sp. Theobald 1937 wasp
Coll Mieg de Bale R 453(640)
 Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae
Cremastus primus n. sp., Parapimpla rhenana n. gen. n. sp., Pimpla seyrigi n. sp., Pimpla indura n. sp.
Cremastus primus n. sp. Theobald 1937 ichneumon wasp
Coll Mieg de Bale R 939(956)
Parapimpla rhenana n. gen. n. sp. Theobald 1937 ichneumon wasp
Coll Mieg de Bale R 403(404)
Pimpla seyrigi n. sp. Theobald 1937 ichneumon wasp
Coll Mieg de Bale R 214(578)
Pimpla indura n. sp. Theobald 1937 ichneumon wasp
Coll Mieg de Bale R 865(587)
 Dicondylia -
Coleoptera indet. Linnaeus 1758 beetle
 Coleoptera - Elateridae
Elateridae indet. Leach 1815 click beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 598(599)
Selatosomus miegi n. sp. Theobald 1937 click beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 624
 Coleoptera - Hydrophilidae
Hydrobius convexus Brulle 1835 water scavenger beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 91(74)
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
Quedius sp. Stephens 1829 rove beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 51
Quedius rhenanus n. sp. Theobald 1937 rove beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 654(798), 25, 63(642)
Oxytelus ominosus Förster 1891 rove beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 305
 Coleoptera -
Cucujiformia indet. Lameere 1938 beetle
 Coleoptera - Nitidulidae
Oligamphotis irenaei n. gen. n. sp. Theobald 1937 sap beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 336
Meligethes detractus Förster 1891 sap beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 572
Omosita sp. Erichson 1843 sap beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 64
Amphotis depressa n. sp. Theobald 1937 sap beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 340
 Coleoptera - Oedemeridae
Ditylus lienharti n. sp. Theobald 1937 false blister beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 718
 Coleoptera - Cleridae
Thanasimus ostenderus n. sp. Theobald 1937 checkered beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 769(2001)
 Coleoptera - Coccinellidae
Aphidecta ? marginata Förster 1891 ladybug or ladybird
Coll Mieg de Bale R 259
 Coleoptera - Cerambycidae
Saperda densipunctata n. sp. Theobald 1937 longhorned beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 800
 Coleoptera - Chrysomelidae
Donacia dubia n. sp. Theobald 1937 leaf beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 698
Cryptocephalus pitoni n. sp. Theobald 1937 leaf beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 809
Galerucella sp. Crotch 1873 leaf beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 78
Galerucella emarginata n. sp. Theobald 1937 leaf beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 776
Psylliodes difficilis Förster 1891 flea beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 9(283), 288(778), 549, 106
Psylliodes defiguratus n. sp. Theobald 1937 flea beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 138
Chrysochloa pulchra Förster 1891 leaf beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 770
 Coleoptera - Curculionidae
Cleonus sp., Lachnopus dilatatus n. sp., Hylobius sp., "Sitona cf. margarum" = Protainophthalmus margarus, "Cleonus cf. sexsulcatus" = Rhytidoderes sexsulcatus, Sitona lata n. sp., Cleonus foersteri n. sp., Ceutorhynchus miegi n. sp.
Cleonus sp. Schonherr 1826 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 822(104)
Lachnopus dilatatus n. sp. Theobald 1937 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 589(92)
Hylobius sp. Hope 1847 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 811(124)
"Sitona cf. margarum" = Protainophthalmus margarus Germar 1849 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 819, 87
"Cleonus cf. sexsulcatus" = Rhytidoderes sexsulcatus Heer 1856 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 807(433)
Sitona lata n. sp. Theobald 1937 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 87
Cleonus foersteri n. sp. Theobald 1937 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 808(593)
Ceutorhynchus miegi n. sp. Theobald 1937 snout beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 243
 Coleoptera - Brentidae
Apion primordiale von Heyden and von Heyden 1866 weevil
Coll Mieg de Bale R 732
 Coleoptera -
"Hydrobius crassipunctatus" = Escheria crassipunctata
"Hydrobius crassipunctatus" = Escheria crassipunctata Förster 1891 beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 707
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
"Harpalus offusus" = Harpalus obtusus Förster 1891 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 440
Harpalus cf. oustaleti Meunier 1915 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 756
Harpalus dilatatus n. sp. Theobald 1937 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 86
Pterostichus molestus n. sp. Theobald 1937 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 815
Trechus capito Förster 1891 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 178
Anchomenus bipunctatus Förster 1891 ground beetle
Coll Mieg de Bale R 806
 Dicondylia -
Diptera indet. Linnaeus 1758 fly
all the poorly preserved specimen
 Diptera - Chironomidae
Chironomus sp. Meigen 1803 non biting midge
Coll Mieg de Bale R 260, 256, 679(508), 242(198), 1023(961)
 Diptera - Simuliidae
Simuliidae indet. Newman 1834 black fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 377, 207
 Diptera - Culicidae
Culex sp. Linnaeus 1758 mosquito
Coll Mieg de Bale R 179
 Diptera -
Agromyza incerta n. sp. Theobald 1937 fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 983, 848
 Diptera - Syrphidae
Sphegina abrasa n. sp. Theobald 1937 hover fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 186
 Diptera - Heleomyzidae
Heleomyza oligocenica n. sp. Theobald 1937 fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 942(1005)
 Diptera - Dolichopodidae
Dolichopus incertus n. sp. Theobald 1937 long-legged fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 1003
 Diptera - Asilidae
Leptogaster falloti n. sp. Theobald 1937 grass fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 881(521)
 Diptera - Rhagionidae
Symphoromyia marginata n. sp. Theobald 1937 snipe fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 892(962)
 Diptera - Bibionidae
Bibionidae indet., "Plecia gigantea n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea, "Plecia crassiventris n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea, "Plecia luteipennis n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea, "Plecia miegi n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea, "Plecia cf. lugens" = Penthetria lugens, "Plecia subterranea n. sp." = Penthetria subterranea, "Plecia claripennis n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis, "Plecia difficilis n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis, "Plecia graciosa n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis, "Plecia variegata n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis, "Plecia varia n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis, Plecia sp., "Plecia foersteri n. sp." = Plecia foersteri, "Plecia foersteri" = Plecia foersteri2, "Plecia splendida" = Plecia foersteri, "Plecia oviformis n. sp." = Plecia foersteri, Plecia conica n. sp., Plecia inflata, Plecia cf. lapidaria, Bibiodes sp.2, "Bibio baumbergeri n. sp." = Bibio baumbergeri, "Bibio parenti n. sp." = Bibio baumbergeri, "Bibio dislocata n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus, "Bibio consolida n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus, "Plecia macroventris n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus, Dilophus sp.2
Bibionidae indet. Newman 1834 march fly
"Plecia gigantea n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 970, 619, 914(888) Mullhouse Museum 156
"Plecia crassiventris n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 934, 638, 401
"Plecia luteipennis n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 2000(963), 34
"Plecia miegi n. sp." = Penthetria gigantea Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 891(2004), 97, 971
"Plecia cf. lugens" = Penthetria lugens Oustalet 1870 march fly
"Plecia subterranea n. sp." = Penthetria subterranea Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 868, 2002, 241
"Plecia claripennis n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 864
"Plecia difficilis n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 625
"Plecia graciosa n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 979(845), 645(651), 662, 797(1000), 995
"Plecia variegata n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 984
"Plecia varia n. sp." = Penthetria claripennis Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 874
Plecia sp. Wiedemann 1823 love bug
"Plecia foersteri n. sp." = Plecia foersteri Theobald 1937 love bug
"Plecia foersteri" = Plecia foersteri2 Theobald 1937 love bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 542(664), 352, 424, 533, 626, 922
"Plecia splendida" = Plecia foersteri Theobald 1937 love bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 861, 517, 780, 1012
"Plecia oviformis n. sp." = Plecia foersteri Theobald 1937 love bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 418
Plecia conica n. sp. Theobald 1937 love bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 657(376)
Plecia inflata Oustalet 1870 love bug
Coll Mieg de Bale R 80, 601, 492, 592(882), 884
Plecia cf. lapidaria von Heyden and von Heyden 1865 love bug
Bibiodes sp.2 Coquillett 1904 march fly
NMB F2136
"Bibio baumbergeri n. sp." = Bibio baumbergeri Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 2003, 833, 481, 849
"Bibio parenti n. sp." = Bibio baumbergeri Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 681
"Bibio dislocata n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 146
"Bibio consolida n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus Theobald 1937 march fly
"Plecia macroventris n. sp." = Bibio dislocatus Theobald 1937 march fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 926
Dilophus sp.2 Meigen 1803 march fly
NMB F2110, 2246
 Diptera - Mycetophilidae
Mycetophilidae indet. Newman 1835 fungus gnat
Coll Mieg de Bale R 878
Allactoneura veiti n. sp. Theobald 1937 fungus gnat
Coll Mieg de Bale R 878
Leia longipes Förster 1891 fungus gnat
Coll Mieg de Bale R 972(879)
Leia gracillima Förster 1891 fungus gnat
Coll Mieg de Bale R 890, 215
"Rhymosia foersteri n. sp." = Rymosia foersteri Theobald 1937 fungus gnat
Coll Mieg de Bale R 1024
 Diptera - Limoniidae
"Limnobia deferi n. sp." = Limonia deferi
"Limnobia deferi n. sp." = Limonia deferi Theobald 1937 crane fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 497
 Diptera - Tipulidae
Tipula sp. Linnaeus 1758 crane fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 830(828)
Tipula cf. marioni Theobald 1937 crane fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 157(784)
Tipula minima n. sp. Theobald 1937 crane fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 1018
Tipula miegi n. sp. Theobald 1937 crane fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 974(867), 163
 Diptera -
Phytomyza vetusta n. sp. Theobald 1937 fly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 1007, 906
 Dicondylia -
Lepidoptera indet. Linnaeus 1758 moth
Coll Mieg de Bale R 827
 Odonata - Aeshnidae
Aeshnidae indet., "Aeschna heterofasciata n. sp." = Aeshna heterofasciata
Aeshnidae indet. Leach 1815 darner dragonfly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 669
"Aeschna heterofasciata n. sp." = Aeshna heterofasciata Theobald 1937 hawker dragonfly
Coll Mieg de Bale R 786