Sandarve Kulle, steep hillock 1 km north of Fardhem Church (Silurian of Sweden)

Also known as Formerly: Hemse Beds: Fossils of Hoburgen-type reef limestone (Manten 1971, Table XIX)

Where: Gotland, Sweden (57.3° N, 18.3° E: paleocoordinates 18.7° S, 2.5° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Unit D Member (Hemse Beds Formation), Gorstian (427.4 - 425.6 Ma)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: reef, buildup or bioherm; reef rocks and limestone

• SEP: clear environmental call based on given info

Collection methods: Riksmuseet

Primary reference: A. A. Manten. 1971. Silurian Reefs of Gotland. Developments in Sedimentology 13:1-539 [M. Foote/M. Foote/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 13603: authorized by Michael Foote, entered by Michael Foote on 15.04.2002, edited by Pete Wagner

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Algae also included.
Rothpletzella
  -
unclassified
  -
Trilobita
  -
Trilobita indet. Walch 1771 trilobite
 Corynexochida - Illaenidae
Bumastus sp. Murchison 1839 trilobite
 Phacopida - Dalmanitidae
 Phacopida - Encrinuridae
Encrinurus punctatus Wahlenberg 1821 trilobite
 Phacopida - Cheiruridae
Sphaerexochus sp. Beyrich 1845 trilobite
Sphaerexochus laciniatus Lindström 1885 trilobite
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Calymene sp. Brongniart 1822 trilobite
 Proetida - Proetidae
Proetus sp. Steininger 1831 trilobite
Ostracoda
  -
Ostracoda indet. Latreille 1802 ostracod
 Palaeocopida -
 Leperditicopida - Leperditiidae
Brachiopoda
  -
Brachiopoda indet. Cuvier 1805
Strophomenata
 Strophomenida - Leptostrophiidae
 Strophomenida - Leptaenoideidae
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaena rhomboidalis Wahlenberg 1818
Rhynchonellata
 Athyridida - Dayiidae
Dayia navicula Sowerby 1839
 Athyridida - Rhynchospirinidae
 Spiriferida - Spiriferidae
"Spirifer" insignis Hedström 1923
Hedstroem
 Spiriferida - Cyrtiidae
 Spiriferida - Delthyrididae
Delthyris elevata Dalman 1828
 Pentamerida - Gypidulidae
Gypidula galeata Dalman 1828
 Pentamerida - Subrianidae
 Pentamerida - Pentameridae
"Conchidium knighti" = Kirkidium knighti
"Conchidium knighti" = Kirkidium knighti Sowerby 1813
 Atrypida - Atrypidae
 Atrypida - Lissatrypidae
Lissatrypa sp. Twenhofel 1914
 Rhynchonellida - Hebetoechiidae
Sphaerirhynchia wilsoni de Sowerby 1816
 Orthida - Draboviidae
""Orthis" tubulata" = Salopina tubulata
""Orthis" tubulata" = Salopina tubulata Lindström 1861
 Orthida - Dicoelosiidae
Dicoelosia biloba Linnaeus 1758
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
Levenea canaliculata Lindström 1861
 Orthida - Plaesiomyidae
 Orthida - Hesperorthidae
Lingulata
 Lingulida - Disciniidae
Orbiculoidea sp. d'Orbigny 1847
 Lingulida - Lingulidae
Craniata
 Craniopsida - Craniopsidae
Polychaeta
 Sabellida - Serpulidae
Spirorbis sp. Daudin 1800
Paragastropoda
 Mimospirida - Clisospiridae
"Onychochilus cochleatum" = Mimospira cochleata
"Onychochilus cochleatum" = Mimospira cochleata Lindström 1884
 Mimospirida - Onychochilidae
Onychochilus reticulatum Lindström 1884
"Cyclonema perversum" = Onychochilus perversa Lindström 1884
Rostroconchia
 Conocardiida -
Conocardioidea sp.6 Miller 1889
Bivalvia
  -
"Lamellibranchiata indet." = Bivalvia
"Lamellibranchiata indet." = Bivalvia Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cyrtodontida - Cyrtodontidae
Yonginella amica1 Liljedahl 1992 clam
 Arcida - Frejidae
Freja nodosa1 clam
(Soot-Ryen 1964)
 Myalinida - Ambonychiidae
Mytilarca sp.1 Hall and Whitfield 1869 clam
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
Actinopterella sp. Williams 1908 oyster
 Ostreida - Rhombopteriidae
Rhombopteria sp. Jackson 1890 oyster
 Carditida - Cardiniidae
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
Goniophora sp.1 Phillips 1848 clam
"Goniophora cymbaeformis" = Goniophora (Goniophora) cymbaeformis Sowerby 1839 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Ilionia prisca Hisinger 1837 clam
 Nuculida -
Caesariella lindensis1 clam
Soot-Ryen 1964
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
Gastropoda sp.6 Cuvier 1797 snail
 Trochonematoidea - Lophospiridae
"Lophospira gothlandica" = Loxoplocus gothlandicus4, "Murchisonia imbricata" = Frodospira imbricata, "Murchisonia cochleata" = Frodospira cochleata
"Lophospira gothlandica" = Loxoplocus gothlandicus4 Ulrich and Scofield 1897 snail
"Murchisonia imbricata" = Frodospira imbricata Lindström 1884 snail
"Murchisonia cochleata" = Frodospira cochleata Lindström 1884 snail
 Euomphalina - Euomphalidae
"Pleurotomaria cirrhosa" = Euomphalopterus cirrhosa, Poleumita discors, Poleumita walmstedti5, "Pleurotomaria planorbis" = Centrifugus planorbis
"Pleurotomaria cirrhosa" = Euomphalopterus cirrhosa Lindström 1884 snail
Poleumita discors Sowerby 1814 snail
Poleumita walmstedti5 Lindström 1884 snail
"Pleurotomaria planorbis" = Centrifugus planorbis Bronn 1835 snail
 Euomphalina - Anomphalidae
Pycnomphalus acutus Lindström 1884 snail
 Euomphalina - Pseudophoridae
"Trochus cavus" = Pseudophorus cavus
"Trochus cavus" = Pseudophorus cavus Lindström 1884 snail
 Euomphalina - Platyceratidae
"Cyclonema adstrictum" = Platyostoma adstrictum, "Platyceras cornutum" = Platyostoma cornutum, "Platyostoma cornutum" = Platyostoma cornutum6, Cyclonema sp., Cyclonema apicatum, Cyclonema cancellatum
"Cyclonema adstrictum" = Platyostoma adstrictum Lindström 1884 snail
"Platyceras cornutum" = Platyostoma cornutum Hisinger 1837 snail
"Platyostoma cornutum" = Platyostoma cornutum6 Hisinger 1837 snail
Cyclonema sp. Hall 1852 snail
Cyclonema apicatum Lindström 1884 snail
Cyclonema cancellatum Angelin and Lindström 1880 snail
 Euomphalina - Craspedostomatidae
Craspedostoma elegantulum Lindström 1884 snail
Craspedostoma glabrum Lindström 1884 snail
 Euomphalina - Oriostomatidae
"Poleumita globosum" = Oriostoma globosum, "Cyclonema distans" = Oriostoma distans, "Cyclonema zonatum" = Oriostoma zonatum, Oriostoma coronatum, "Holopea nux" = Oriostoma nux, ""Oriostoma" nitidissimum" = Morphotropis nitidissimum
"Poleumita globosum" = Oriostoma globosum von Schlotheim 1820 snail
"Cyclonema distans" = Oriostoma distans Lindström 1884 snail
"Cyclonema zonatum" = Oriostoma zonatum Lindström 1884 snail
Oriostoma coronatum Lindström 1884 snail
"Holopea nux" = Oriostoma nux Lindström 1884 snail
""Oriostoma" nitidissimum" = Morphotropis nitidissimum Lindström 1884 snail
 Prosobranchia - Meekospiridae
"Machrochilina bulimina" = Auriptygma bulimina
"Machrochilina bulimina" = Auriptygma bulimina Lindström 1884 snail
 Bellerophontida - Bellerophontidae
"Bellerophon gemma" = Bucanopsis gemma
"Bellerophon gemma" = Bucanopsis gemma Lindström 1884 snail
 Bellerophontida - Bucaniidae
"Bellerophon taenia" = Megalomphala taenia Lindström 1884 snail
Megalomphala gotlandica2 Peel 1991 snail
Tremanotus compressus Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Porcelliidae
"Murchisonia cancellata" = Quadricarina cancellata, "Pleurotomaria glandiformis" = Quadricarina glandiformis
"Murchisonia cancellata" = Quadricarina cancellata Lindström 1884 snail
"Pleurotomaria glandiformis" = Quadricarina glandiformis Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Phanerotrematidae
"Pleurotomaria lloydi" = Ulrichospira lloydii
"Pleurotomaria lloydi" = Ulrichospira lloydii de Sowerby and Murchison 1839 snail
 Murchisoniina - Gosseletinidae
"Pleurotomaria gradata" = Conotoma gradata, ""Pleurotomaria" linnarsoni" = Stenoloron linnarssoni, "Pleurotomaria voluta" = Platyloron voluta
"Pleurotomaria gradata" = Conotoma gradata Lindström 1884 snail
""Pleurotomaria" linnarsoni" = Stenoloron linnarssoni Lindström 1884 snail
"Pleurotomaria voluta" = Platyloron voluta Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Murchisoniidae
Murchisonia deflexa, "Murchisonia attenuata" = Michelia whiteavesi, "Murchisonia paradoxa" = Morania paradoxa
Murchisonia deflexa Lindström 1884 snail
"Murchisonia attenuata" = Michelia whiteavesi Clarke and Ruedemann 1903 snail
"Murchisonia paradoxa" = Morania paradoxa Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Hormotomidae
"Murchisonia compressa" = Catazone compressa
"Murchisonia compressa" = Catazone compressa Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Soleniscidae
"Machrochilina cancellata" = Decorochilina cancellata
"Machrochilina cancellata" = Decorochilina cancellata Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Loxonematidae
"Murchisonia crispa" = Loxonema crispa, Loxonema fasciatum, Loxonema strangulatum, "Holopella minuta" = Rhabdostropha minuta
"Murchisonia crispa" = Loxonema crispa Lindström 1884 snail
Loxonema fasciatum Lindström 1884 snail
Loxonema strangulatum Lindström 1884 snail
"Holopella minuta" = Rhabdostropha minuta Lindström 1884 snail
 Murchisoniina - Subulitidae
"Euchrysalis lineolata" = Subulites lineolata
"Euchrysalis lineolata" = Subulites lineolata Lindström 1884 snail
Tentaculita
 Cornulitida - Cornulitidae
  -
"Autodetus calyptratus" = Anticalyptraea
"Autodetus calyptratus" = Anticalyptraea
Tergomya
 Tryblidiida - Tryblidiidae
"Palaeacmaea solarium" = Pilina solarium
"Palaeacmaea solarium" = Pilina solarium Lindström 1884
Cephalopoda
  -
Cephalopoda indet. Cuvier 1797
 Orthocerida -
 Orthocerida - Orthoceratidae
Orthoceras sp. Breynius 1832
 Discosorida - Phragmoceratidae
 Ascocerida - Ascoceratidae
 Oncocerida - Trimeroceratidae
 Oncocerida -
Gomphoceras sp. Sowerby 1839
Bryozoa
  -
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
Stenolaemata
 Cystoporida - Fistuliporidae
Fistulipora sp. McCoy 1850
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
Stromatoporoidea
 Stromatoporoidea -
 Labechiida - Labechiidae
Labechia conferta Lonsdale 1839
Anthozoa
  -
Anthozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1834
 Auloporida - Syringoporidae
Syringopora sp. Goldfuss 1826 tabulate coral
 Auloporida - Auloporidae
Aulopora reomeri tabulate coral
Aulopora sp. Goldfuss 1829 tabulate coral
 Favositida - Favositidae
Favosites sp. Lamarck 1816 tabulate coral
Favosites gothlandicus Lamarck 1816 tabulate coral
 Favositida - Syringolitidae
"Roemeria kunthiana" = Syringolites kunthianus
"Roemeria kunthiana" = Syringolites kunthianus Lindström 1896 tabulate coral
 Favositida - Coenitidae
Coenites variabilis tabulate coral
 Heliolitida - Halysitidae
Halysites catenularius Linnaeus 1767 tabulate coral
 Heliolitida - Plasmoporidae
Plasmopora rosa tabulate coral
Plasmopora rudis tabulate coral
Plasmopora suprema tabulate coral
 Heliolitida - Proporidae
Diploepora grayi tabulate coral
 Heliolitida - Heliolitidae
Heliolites parvistella tabulate coral
Heliolites sp. Dana 1846 tabulate coral
Heliolites barrandei Penecke 1887 tabulate coral
 Cystiphyllida - Cystiphyllidae
"Hedstroemophyllum sp." = Cystiphyllum (Hedstroemophyllum)
"Hedstroemophyllum sp." = Cystiphyllum (Hedstroemophyllum) Wedekind 1927 horn coral
 Stauriida - Acervulariidae
 Stauriida - Entelophyllidae
 Stauriida - Cyathophyllidae
Cyathophyllum sp. Goldfuss 1826 horn coral
Rhodophyceae
  - Solenoporaceae
Solenopora sp. Dybowski 1877
 Algae -