Near Chaomidian Village (GMC Beijing coll) (Cretaceous of China)

Where: Liaoning, China (41.6° N, 120.8° E: paleocoordinates 44.1° N, 122.9° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Yixian Formation (Jehol Group), Late/Upper Barremian (130.0 - 125.5 Ma)

• The Yixian Formation can be subdivided into five units, in ascending order, Lujiatun unit, Lower Lava, Jianshangou unit, Upper Lava, Dawangzhangzi unit, Jingangshan unit, and Huanghuashan unit. Most of the Jehol fossils from the Yixian Formation are preserved in four beds, that is, the Lujiatun bed (recalculated age is 124.0 ± 1.0/1.3 Ma, He et al., 2006), the Jianshangou bed (125.43 ± 0.50/0.88 Ma, Swisher et al., 1999), the Dawangzhangzi bed, and Jinggangshan bed (~122 Ma, Smith et al., 1995).U-Pb dating suggests that the Huangbanjigou section ranges from 124.9 ± 1.7 Ma to 122.8 ± 1.6 Ma (Yang et al., 2007). Chang et al. (2017) obtained Ar/Ar ages of 125.8 ± 1.0 Ma and 126.0 ± 0.8 Ma from the Lujiatun Unit, the lowest part of the Yixian Formation, below the lacustrine shales.

•He et al. (2004) reported a 40Ar/39Ar age of 120.3 ± 0.7 Ma for a tuff layer in the lower part of the Jiufotang Formation, and Chang et al. (2009) obtained a 40Ar/39Ar age of 122.1 ± 0.3 Ma for a tuff layer from the lowermost part of the Jiufotang Formation. Yu et al. (2021) dated an ash bed just above the Yixian/Jiufotang formation boundary to 122.0 ± 0.9 Ma and three tuff beds from the Xiaotaizi section to 118.9 ± 0.8 Ma, 118.8 ± 0.6 Ma, and 118.6 ± 1.1 Ma. These ages suggest that the Jiufotang Formation in Jianchang Basin was deposited at ca. 122.0–118.9 Ma.

•Olierrok et al. (2019) used a selection of U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology to place the Barremian–Aptian boundary (the base of the Chron M0r) between 123.8 and 121.8 Ma. The GTS 2020 uses an age of 121.4 Ma for the base of the Aptian, and multiproxy orbital tuning gives an age of 120.2 Ma for the Barremian-Aptian boundary (Leandro et al., 2022). Therefore, the Yixian Formation should be entirely Late Barremian, with the Jiufotang Formation deposited in the Early Aptian (or latest Barremian at its base).

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - large; lithified, tuffaceous mudstone

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: adpression

Collection methods: Repository: Geological Museum of China, Beijing

Primary reference: D. Ren. 1995. Insecta. In D. Ren, L.W. Lu, Z.G. Guo, S.A. Ji (eds.), Faunae and stratigraphy of Jurassic-Cretaceous in Beijing and the adjacent areas 47-121 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 138436: authorized by Matthew Clapham, entered by Matthew Clapham on 18.01.2013, edited by Jered Karr

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Insecta
 Blattodea - Mesoblattinidae
Nipponoblatta acerba n. sp. Ren 1995 cockroach
LB93003
 Orthoptera - Elcanidae
Liaonemobius tanae n. gen. n. sp.6
Liaonemobius tanae n. gen. n. sp.6 Ren 1998 grasshopper
LB97301(2), 97303
 Dicondylia - Susumaniidae
"Hagiphasmatidae indet." = Susumaniinae4, Hagiphasma paradoxa n. gen. n. sp.4
"Hagiphasmatidae indet." = Susumaniinae4 Gorochov 1988 winged insect
LB96003
Hagiphasma paradoxa n. gen. n. sp.4 Ren 1997 winged insect
LB96001(2)
 Raphidioptera - Mesoraphidiidae
"Liaoraphidia fornicata n. gen. n. sp." = Siboptera fornicata2, "Alloraphidia obliquivenatica n. sp." = Stenoraphidia obliquivenatica2, "Archeraphidia shangyuanensis n. sp." = Mesoraphidia shangyuanensis2, "Archeraphidia polyphlebia n. sp." = Mesoraphidia polyphlebia2, "Alloraphidia longistigmosa n. sp." = Mesoraphidia longistigmosa2
"Liaoraphidia fornicata n. gen. n. sp." = Siboptera fornicata2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh003
"Alloraphidia obliquivenatica n. sp." = Stenoraphidia obliquivenatica2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh006, 005, 007, 008, 009, 010, 011
"Archeraphidia shangyuanensis n. sp." = Mesoraphidia shangyuanensis2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh015
"Archeraphidia polyphlebia n. sp." = Mesoraphidia polyphlebia2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh016(017)
"Alloraphidia longistigmosa n. sp." = Mesoraphidia longistigmosa2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh004
 Raphidioptera - Baissopteridae
Baissoptera liaoningensis n. sp.2 Ren 1994 snakefly
Sh001(002)
 Neuroptera - Myrmeleontidae
Choromyrmeleon othneius n. gen. n. sp.9
Choromyrmeleon othneius n. gen. n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 antlion
LB95013(4)
 Neuroptera - Kalligrammatidae
"Kalligramma liaoningensis n. sp." = Kalligramma liaoningense9, Sophogramma eucalla n. sp.9, Sophogramma plecophlebia n. sp.9, Sophogramma papilionacea n. gen. n. sp.9
"Kalligramma liaoningensis n. sp." = Kalligramma liaoningense9 Ren and Guo 1996 lacewing
LB95004(5)
Sophogramma eucalla n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 lacewing
LB95002(3)
Sophogramma plecophlebia n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 lacewing
LB95009
Sophogramma papilionacea n. gen. n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 lacewing
LB95001
 Neuroptera - Ithonidae
Lasiosmylus newi n. gen. n. sp.9
Lasiosmylus newi n. gen. n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 moth lacewing
LB95006
 Neuroptera - Chrysopidae
"Lembochrysa polyneura n. sp." = Mesypochrysa polyneura9, "Lembochrysa miniscula n. gen. n. sp." = Mesypochrysa miniscula9
"Lembochrysa polyneura n. sp." = Mesypochrysa polyneura9 Ren and Guo 1996 green lacewing
LB95012
"Lembochrysa miniscula n. gen. n. sp." = Mesypochrysa miniscula9 Ren and Guo 1996 green lacewing
LB95010
 Neuroptera - Mesochrysopidae
Mesascalaphus yangi n. gen. n. sp.
Mesascalaphus yangi n. gen. n. sp. Ren 1995 lacewing
LB93003
 Neuroptera - Berothidae
Oloberotha sinica n. gen. n. sp.9
Oloberotha sinica n. gen. n. sp.9 Ren and Guo 1996 beaded lacewing
LB95007(8)
 Mecoptera - Bittacidae
Megabittacus beipiaoensis n. sp.3 Ren 1997 hangingfly
LB95051
Megabittacus colosseus n. gen. n. sp.3 Ren 1997 hangingfly
LB95050
Sibirobittacus atalus n. sp.3 Ren 1997 hangingfly
LB95052(3), 95054(5)
 Mecoptera - Orthophlebiidae
Orthophlebia liaoningensis n. sp.3 Ren 1997 scorpionfly
LB95055(6), 95057, 95058, 95059, 95060, 95061
 Hemiptera - Lalacidae
Lapicixius decorus n. gen. n. sp.11
Lapicixius decorus n. gen. n. sp.11 Ren et al. 1998 planthopper
LB97152(3), 97150(1), 97154, 97155(6), 97157, 97158(9), 97160, 97161(2), 97163, 97164
 Hemiptera - Procercopidae
"Anthoscytina aphthosa n. sp." = Stellularis aphthosa11, Anomoscytina anomala n. gen. n. sp.11
"Anthoscytina aphthosa n. sp." = Stellularis aphthosa11 Ren et al. 1998 froghopper
LB97202, 97201, 97203-97205, 97207-97216
Anomoscytina anomala n. gen. n. sp.11 Ren et al. 1998 froghopper
LB97206
 Hemiptera - Palaeontinidae
Miracossus ingentius n. gen. n. sp.10, "Liaocossus beipiaoensis n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus beipiaoensis10, "Liaocossus exiguus n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus exiguus10, "Liaocossus hui n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus hui10
Miracossus ingentius n. gen. n. sp.10 Ren et al. 1998 true bug
LB97106
"Liaocossus beipiaoensis n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus beipiaoensis10 Ren et al. 1998 true bug
LB97101
"Liaocossus exiguus n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus exiguus10 Ren et al. 1998 true bug
LB97103
"Liaocossus hui n. gen. n. sp." = Ilerdocossus hui10 Ren et al. 1998 true bug
LB97104
 Odonata - Liassogomphidae
Chrysogomphus beipiaoensis n. gen. n. sp.1 Ren 1994 dragonfly
LB92020
 Odonata - Corduliidae
Mesocordulia boreala n. gen. n. sp.8
Mesocordulia boreala n. gen. n. sp.8 Ren and Guo 1996 green-eyed skimmer
LB94021, LB94022
 Odonata - Gomphidae
Liogomphus yixianensis n. gen. n. sp.8
Liogomphus yixianensis n. gen. n. sp.8 Ren and Guo 1996 clubtail dragonfly
LB94020
 Odonata - Rudiaeschnidae
Rudiaeschna limnobia n. gen. n. sp.8
Rudiaeschna limnobia n. gen. n. sp.8 Ren and Guo 1996 true dragonfly
LB94010, 94011
 Diptera - Protapioceridae
Protapiocera ischyra n. sp.5, Protapiocera megista n. gen. n. sp.5
Protapiocera ischyra n. sp.5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97003
Protapiocera megista n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97001/2
 Diptera - Empididae
Protempis minuta n. sp.5 Ren 1998 dagger fly
LB97021
 Diptera - Eremochaetidae
"Alleremonomus xingi n. gen. n. sp." = Alleremonomus xingi7, "Alleremonomus liaoningensis n. sp." = Alleremonomus xingi7, Lepteremochaetus lithoecius n. gen. n. sp.5
"Alleremonomus xingi n. gen. n. sp." = Alleremonomus xingi7 Ren and Guo 1995 fly
LB94001, LB94002
"Alleremonomus liaoningensis n. sp." = Alleremonomus xingi7 Ren and Guo 1995 fly
LB94003
Lepteremochaetus lithoecius n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97023
 Diptera - Archisargidae
"Allomyia ruderalis n. gen. n. sp." = Sinallomyia ruderalis5, "Pauromyia oresbia n. gen. n. sp." = Sharasargus oresbius5, "Helempis yixianensis n. gen. n. sp." = Ovisargus (Helempis) yixianensis5, "Helempis eucalla n. sp." = Ovisargus eucalla5
"Allomyia ruderalis n. gen. n. sp." = Sinallomyia ruderalis5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97020
"Pauromyia oresbia n. gen. n. sp." = Sharasargus oresbius5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97022
"Helempis yixianensis n. gen. n. sp." = Ovisargus (Helempis) yixianensis5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97024
"Helempis eucalla n. sp." = Ovisargus eucalla5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97025
 Diptera - Nemestrinidae
Protonemestrius jurassicus n. sp.5 Ren 1998 tangle-veined fly
LB97005
Protonemestrius beipiaoensis n. sp.5 Ren 1998 tangle-veined fly
LB97013, 97012, 97014
Florinemestrius pulcherrimus n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 tangle-veined fly
LB97008/9, 97011
 Diptera - Rhagionidae
Orsobrachyceron chinensis n. gen. n. sp.5, Oiobrachyceron limnogenus n. gen. n. sp.5
Orsobrachyceron chinensis n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 snipe fly
LB97015
Oiobrachyceron limnogenus n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 snipe fly
LB97016
 Diptera -
Palaepangonius eupterus n. gen. n. sp.5
Palaepangonius eupterus n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 fly
LB97017/8
 Diptera - Tabanidae
Eopangonius pletus n. gen. n. sp.5
Eopangonius pletus n. gen. n. sp.5 Ren 1998 horse fly
LB97019
Aeschnidium heishankowensis
  -
"Sinaeschnidia cancellosa n. sp." = Aeschnidium heishankowensis
"Sinaeschnidia cancellosa n. sp." = Aeschnidium heishankowensis Hong 1965
LB93005