Cabeza Blanca ( of Argentina)

Also known as Loomis Locality

Where: Chubut, Argentina (45.2° S, 67.5° W: paleocoordinates 46.4° S, 60.0° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Sarmiento Formation, Deseadan (29.0 - 21.0 Ma)

• According to the most recent geochronological calibrations at Gran Barranca, Deseadan mammal assemblages could be as old as 29.2 Ma and as young as 26.3 Ma (Ré et al. 2010: 59243), a timespan corresponding to the late Oligocene.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; brown, sandy shale and concretionary, yellow, sandy claystone

• "The material varies from brown sandy clay shales to yellow sandy clay with concretions, and is capped with a varying laer of greenish sand, which, in some places, is coarse and irregular, in others fine and uniform, and in still other places is mixed with considerable quantities of volcanic ash. In it are many mud balls..."

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: F. Ameghino. 1897. Mammiféres crétacés de l’Argentine (Deuxième contribution à la connaissance de la fauna mammalogique de couches à Pyrotherium) [Cretaceous mammals of Argentina (second contribution to the knowledge of the mammalian fauna of the Pyrotherium Beds)]. Boletin Instituto Geografico Argentino 18(4–9):406-521 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 14211: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Jill Wertheim on 23.05.2002, edited by Juan Carrillo, Jelle Zijlstra, Terri Cleary, Philip Mannion, Evangelos Vlachos and Grace Varnham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
 Astrapotheria - Astrapotheriidae
Parastrapotherium holmbergi13 Ameghino 1894 placental
 Theriamorpha - Pyrotheridae
Pyrotherium romeroi14 placental
AM 3207
Pyrotherium sorondoi13 Ameghino 1894 placental
 Notoungulata - Henricosborniidae
Henricosborniidae indet.23 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN A52-486 (originally part of syntype of Progaleopithecus fissurellatus)
 Notoungulata - Protypotheriidae
Archaeophylus patrius n. gen. n. sp.
Archaeophylus patrius n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-483 - type
 Notoungulata - Mesotheriidae
"Eutrachytherus spegazzinianus" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13, "Isoproedrium solitarium" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13, "Coresodon cancellatus n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus3, "Anatrachytherus soriae n. gen. n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus18, "Eutrachytherus grandis n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13
"Eutrachytherus spegazzinianus" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-492, MACN A52-491, MACN A52-566, MACN A52-567, MACN A52-493, MACN A52-489, MACN A52-498, MACN A52-496, MACN A52-490, UNPSJB PV 112, AMNH 29564, ACM 3264, ACM s/n and FMNH P13281
"Isoproedrium solitarium" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
"Coresodon cancellatus n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus3 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-566, maxilla dP3-4, M1, holotype
"Anatrachytherus soriae n. gen. n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus18 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-490, mandible with left and right i1-2, p2-m2, left m3
"Eutrachytherus grandis n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus13 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
"Argyrohyrax proavus n. gen. n. sp." = Argyrohyrax proavus, "Argyrohyrax proavus" = Argyrohyrax proavus14, "Argyrohyrax proavunculus" = Argyrohyrax proavus23, "Plagiarthrus cliva" = Argyrohyrax proavus13, Progaleopithecus fissurellatus n. gen. n. sp.23, Progaleopithecus tournoueri n. sp.23
"Argyrohyrax proavus n. gen. n. sp." = Argyrohyrax proavus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-472 - holotype
"Argyrohyrax proavus" = Argyrohyrax proavus14 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
FMH P13415
"Argyrohyrax proavunculus" = Argyrohyrax proavus23 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-478 and A52-474
"Plagiarthrus cliva" = Argyrohyrax proavus13 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Progaleopithecus fissurellatus n. gen. n. sp.23 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN A52-486 - type
Progaleopithecus tournoueri n. sp.23 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MNH DES 334 - type; referred material: FMNH 14687
 Notoungulata - Archaeohyracidae
Archaeohyrax patagonicus4 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Ameghino
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Propachyrucos crassus n. sp., "Prosotherium garzoni" = Prosotherium garzoni13, "Prosotherium triangulidens" = Prosotherium garzoni13, "Phanophilus dorsatus" = Medistylus dorsatus13, "Medistylus dorsatus n. gen. n. sp." = Medistylus dorsatus20, "Prohegetotherium sculptum" = Prohegetotherium sculptum19, "Prohegetotherium shumwayi n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum13, Hegetotheriopsis sulcatus12
Propachyrucos crassus n. sp. Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-450, A52-463, A52-448 (lectotype)
"Prosotherium garzoni" = Prosotherium garzoni13 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
"Prosotherium triangulidens" = Prosotherium garzoni13 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
"Phanophilus dorsatus" = Medistylus dorsatus13 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
"Medistylus dorsatus n. gen. n. sp." = Medistylus dorsatus20 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN A52-488 - syntype; MPEF-PV 693
"Prohegetotherium sculptum" = Prohegetotherium sculptum19 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-446, A52-447, A52-449, FMNH P13414, FMNH P14695, AMNH 312 c; and hypodigms of synonyms
"Prohegetotherium shumwayi n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum13 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Hegetotheriopsis sulcatus12 Kramarz and Paz 2013 notoungulate
MACN PV CH2137
 Notoungulata - Leontiniidae
Ancylocoelus frequens21 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
Leontinia gaudryi13 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Notoungulata -
Eurygenium latirostris n. gen. n. sp.15
Eurygenium latirostris n. gen. n. sp.15 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
MACN A52-70 - holotype; hypodigm: MACN-A-52-71-73 and UNPSJB PV-60
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
 Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Asmodeus osborni13 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Notohippidae
Rhynchippus pumilus22 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
AMNH 29555
Rhynchippus equinus13 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Coresodon scalpridens13 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Panameriungulata - Adianthidae
"Proadianthus excavatus" = Proadiantus excavatus13, "Proadiantus excavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus, "Proadiantus pungidens n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus8, Tricoelodus bicuspidatus n. gen. n. sp.
"Proadianthus excavatus" = Proadiantus excavatus13 Ameghino 1897 placental
Ameghino
"Proadiantus excavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus Ameghino 1897 placental
MACN A52-13, dentary p3-4, holotype; A52-217, dentary p4-m1; A52-215, dentary m1-3
"Proadiantus pungidens n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus8 Ameghino 1897 placental
MACN A52-214, dentary i2-c, p2-m2, lectotype
Tricoelodus bicuspidatus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 placental
MACN A52-203, dentary p4-m2, holotype; MACN A52-615, dentary m3; FMNH P14698, right P3-M2 and left ?C, P2-3, M1-3; FMNH P14696, right m2-3
 Panameriungulata - Macraucheniidae
Notodiaphorus crassus n. gen. n. sp.13 Loomis 1914 placental
Cramauchenia normalis10 Ameghino 1902 placental
MPEF-PV 2524
 Panameriungulata - Proterotheriidae
Deuterotherium distichum13 Ameghino 1894 placental
Ameghino
Protheosodon coniferus13 Ameghino 1897 placental
 Rodentia -
Caviomorpha indet.26 caviomorph
ACM 3039, left lower molar
? Asteromys punctus25 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 595 isolated right DP4; MPEF-PV 597 isolated left DP4 with damaged lingual wall. MACN 52-87, right dP4; ACM 3054, right M?3
Asteromys punctus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-110, dentary with p4-m3
Chubutomys simpsoni n. gen. n. sp.26 Wood and Patterson 1959 caviomorph
AMNH 29557, dentary m2-3
 Rodentia - Eocardiidae
Eocardiidae indet.26 Ameghino 1891 caviomorph
ACM 3054, M3; MACN A 52-87, dP4
 Rodentia - Chinchillidae
Scotamys antiquus n. gen. n. sp.13 Loomis 1914 chinchilid
Incamys menniorum n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 chinchilid
MPEF-PV 10685, left m3, holotype; MPEF-PV 10686, M1 or M2
Incamys bolivianus6 Hoffstetter and Lavocat 1970 chinchilid
MPEF-PV 10721
Incamys bolivianus17 Hoffstetter and Lavocat 1970 chinchilid
MACN A 52-113, upper cheek tooth
? Eoviscaccia australis n. sp.24 Vucetich 1989 chinchilid
MACN 1297, left m1 or m2; MACN 1298, right m1 or m2
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Galileomys baios n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10676, dentary p4-m2, holotype
 Rodentia -
Deseadomys arambourgi26, Ethelomys loomisi n. gen. n. sp.25, ? Protacaremys adilos n. sp.25, Llitun notuca n. gen. n. sp.25, Leucokephalos zeffiae n. gen. n. sp.25, Acarechimys leucotheae n. sp.25
Deseadomys arambourgi26 Wood and Patterson 1959 caviomorph
ACM 3163, P4-M2; ACM 3071, M3
Ethelomys loomisi n. gen. n. sp.25 caviomorph
ACM 3087, dentary m1-2, holotype; MPEF-PV 571, dentary i, m1-m2
? Protacaremys adilos n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10678, right m2, holotype
Llitun notuca n. gen. n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10679, dentary i, p4-m2
Leucokephalos zeffiae n. gen. n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 583, dentary p4-m2, holotype; MPEF-PV 585, right mandibular fragment with p4–m2 of a juvenile; MPEF-PV 586, left p4–m3 series; MPEF-PV 10680, isolated right p4; MPEF- PV 584, left mandibular fragment with p4-m2 and the incisor; MPEF-PV 10680, isolated right p4.
Acarechimys leucotheae n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10677, dentary i, dp4-m3, holotype
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
"Eosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus13, "Protosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus26, Protosteiromys asmodeophilus25
"Eosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus13 Ameghino 1903 porcupine
"Protosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus26 Ameghino 1903 porcupine
ACM 3014, M1 or M2
Protosteiromys asmodeophilus25 Wood and Patterson 1959 porcupine
 Rodentia -
Loncolicu tretos n. gen. n. sp.25
Loncolicu tretos n. gen. n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10682, M1-M2, holotype; MPEF-PV 10683, P4-M2; MPEF-PV 10681, dentary p4-m1
 Rodentia - Cephalomyidae
Cephalomyidae indet.24, Cephalomyopsis "morphotype 3"25, "Cephalomys arcidens n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, "Cephalomys prosus" = Cephalomys arcidens13, "Cephalomys prorsus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens26, "Asteromys annectens n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens26, "Asteromys prospicuus" = Cephalomys arcidens13, "Asteromys prospicuus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, "Orchiomys prostans n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, "Cephalomys plexus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, Cephalomys ceciae n. sp.25, Litodontomys chubutensis n. gen. n. sp.13
Cephalomyidae indet.24 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN 1295, M1 or M2; MACN 1296, M1 or M2
Cephalomyopsis "morphotype 3"25 Vucetich 1985 caviomorph
"Cephalomys arcidens n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-88 (lectotype), palatal fragments with P4-M3, dentary p4-m3; MACN A 52-89 (syntype), partial skull; additional specimens in MACN, Amherst, FMNH, AMNH, YPM, MCZ
"Cephalomys prosus" = Cephalomys arcidens13 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
"Cephalomys prorsus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens26 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-103, dentary p4-m3, type
"Asteromys annectens n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens26 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-108, dentary p4-m3 (lectotype); MACN A 52-109, palate with right and left P4-M3
"Asteromys prospicuus" = Cephalomys arcidens13 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
"Asteromys prospicuus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-107, four teeth: left M3 (lectotype), left M1 or M2, right M1 or M2, and a fragment
"Orchiomys prostans n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-96, dentary with partial dp4 and m1-2
"Cephalomys plexus n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-99, maxilla P4-M3, lectotype; 52-100, maxilla P4-M3; 52-101, mandible p4-m2; 52-102, mandible p4-m2. 3 in MACN; 17 in Amherst; 1 in FMNH; 2 in AMNH; 4 in YPM; and types of synonyms
Cephalomys ceciae n. sp.25 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10693, left m1 or m2, holotype
Litodontomys chubutensis n. gen. n. sp.13 Loomis 1914 caviomorph
ACM 3086 - holotype; referred specimen: MPEF- PV 10696
 Cingulata - Palaeopeltidae
Palaeopeltis inornatus13 Ameghino 1894 edentate
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Proeuphractus setiger13, "Proeutatus lagenaformis" = Meteutatus lagenaformis13
Proeuphractus setiger13 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
"Proeutatus lagenaformis" = Meteutatus lagenaformis13 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus undulatus13 Ameghino 1897 edentate
 Cingulata - Chlamyphoridae
Prozaedius impressus13 Ameghino 1897 edentate
Prozaedius planus13 Ameghino 1897 edentate
 Edentata -
"Edentata indet." = Xenarthra13
"Edentata indet." = Xenarthra13 Cope 1889 edentate
 Sparassodonta -
"Notogale mitis" = Notogale mitis16, "Pharsophorus mitis" = Notogale mitis13
"Notogale mitis" = Notogale mitis16 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
(Ameghino 1897)
"Pharsophorus mitis" = Notogale mitis13 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Australohyaena antiqua11 Ameghino 1894 metatherian
UNPJSB PV 113, rostrum, basicranium, both dentaries, and dentition, except left i2, right i4 and right p1.
Pharsophorus lacerans16 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
3 more MACN specimens may be from Cabeza Blanca
Pharsophorus tenax13 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
 Sparassodonta - Proborhyaenidae
Proborhyaena gigantea16 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
(Ameghino 1897) probably Cabeza Blanca
 Theriamorpha -
"Notogale tenuis" = Pharsophorus tenuis16
"Notogale tenuis" = Pharsophorus tenuis16 Ameghino 1897 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897) Probably from Cabeza Blanca
 Paucituberculata - Caenolestidae
"Palaeothentes lucina" = Pilchenia lucina16, "Pilchenia lucina n. sp." = Pilchenia lucina13
"Palaeothentes lucina" = Pilchenia lucina16 Ameghino 1904 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897)
"Pilchenia lucina n. sp." = Pilchenia lucina13 Ameghino 1904 marsupial
MACN 52-371, isolated m3, holotype, probably from Cabeza Blanca; AC 3110, dentary p3-m4, certainly from here
 Paucituberculata - Palaeothentidae
"Palaeothentes chubutensis" = Carlothentes chubutensis16, "Epanorthus chubutensis" = Carlothentes chubutensis13, Acdestodon bonapartei n. gen. n. sp.5, "Callomenus praecursor n. sp." = Acdestoides praecursor13, Parabderites minusculus16
"Palaeothentes chubutensis" = Carlothentes chubutensis16 Ameghino 1897 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897)
"Epanorthus chubutensis" = Carlothentes chubutensis13 Ameghino 1897 marsupial
Acdestodon bonapartei n. gen. n. sp.5 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
Holotype: MACN CH- 1311, right p3-m2
"Callomenus praecursor n. sp." = Acdestoides praecursor13 Loomis 1914 marsupial
Parabderites minusculus16 Ameghino 1902 marsupial
(Ameghino 1902)
Reptilia
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae indet.1 Oppel 1811 squamates
MPEF-PV 1460, tooth-bearing fragment of maxilla or dentary
? Iguaninae indet.1 Cope 1886 squamates
MPEF-PV 1463, isolated presacral vertebra
 Squamata - Madtsoiidae
? Madtsoia sp.1 Simpson 1933 snake
MPEF-PV 1464, isolated precloacal vertebral centrum
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Testudininae indet.9 Gray 1825 turtle
MACN
Aves
 Gruiformes - Phorusrhacidae
Andrewsornis abotti2 terror bird
Physornis sp.13 Ameghino 1895 terror bird
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Loxornis clivus13 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl