Cabeza Blanca ( of Argentina)

Also known as Loomis Locality

Where: Chubut, Argentina (45.2° S, 67.5° W: paleocoordinates 46.4° S, 60.0° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Sarmiento Formation, Deseadan (29.0 - 21.0 Ma)

• According to the most recent geochronological calibrations at Gran Barranca, Deseadan mammal assemblages could be as old as 29.2 Ma and as young as 26.3 Ma (Ré et al. 2010: 59243), a timespan corresponding to the late Oligocene.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; brown, sandy shale and concretionary, yellow, sandy claystone

• "The material varies from brown sandy clay shales to yellow sandy clay with concretions, and is capped with a varying laer of greenish sand, which, in some places, is coarse and irregular, in others fine and uniform, and in still other places is mixed with considerable quantities of volcanic ash. In it are many mud balls..."

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: F. Ameghino. 1897. Mammiféres crétacés de l’Argentine (Deuxième contribution à la connaissance de la fauna mammalogique de couches à Pyrotherium) [Cretaceous mammals of Argentina (second contribution to the knowledge of the mammalian fauna of the Pyrotherium Beds)]. Boletin Instituto Geografico Argentino 18(4–9):406-521 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 14211: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Jill Wertheim on 23.05.2002, edited by Juan Carrillo, Jelle Zijlstra, Terri Cleary, Philip Mannion and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudininae indet.7 Gray 1825 turtle
MACN
Aves
 Cariamae - Phorusrhacidae
Physornis sp.11 Ameghino 1895 terror bird
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Loxornis clivus11 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
Reptilia
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae indet.1 Oppel 1811 lizard
MPEF-PV 1460, tooth-bearing fragment of maxilla or dentary
? Iguaninae indet.1 Cope 1886 lizard
MPEF-PV 1463, isolated presacral vertebra
 Squamata - Madtsoiidae
? Madtsoia sp.1 Simpson 1933 snake
MPEF-PV 1464, isolated precloacal vertebral centrum
Mammalia
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
 Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Asmodeus osborni11 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Leontiniidae
Leontinia gaudryi11 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
Ancylocoelus frequens18 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Notohippidae
Eurygenium latirostris n. gen. n. sp.12 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
MACN A52-70 - holotype; hypodigm: MACN-A-52-71-73 and UNPSJB PV-60
Rhynchippus equinus11 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Rhynchippus pumilus19 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
AMNH 29555
Coresodon scalpridens11 Ameghino 1894 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Protypotheriidae
Archaeophylus patrius n. gen. n. sp.
Archaeophylus patrius n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-483 - type
 Notoungulata - Archaeohyracidae
Archaeohyrax patagonicus3 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Ameghino
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Prosotherium garzoni11, Prosotherium triangulidens11, "Phanophilus dorsatus" = Medistylus dorsatus11, "Medistylus dorsatus n. gen. n. sp." = Medistylus dorsatus17, Hegetotheriopsis sulcatus10, "Prohegetotherium sculptum" = Prohegetotherium sculptum16, "Propachyrucos crassus n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum, "Prohegetotherium shumwayi n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum11
Prosotherium garzoni11 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
Prosotherium triangulidens11 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
"Phanophilus dorsatus" = Medistylus dorsatus11 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
"Medistylus dorsatus n. gen. n. sp." = Medistylus dorsatus17 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN A52-488 - syntype; MPEF-PV 693
Hegetotheriopsis sulcatus10 Kramarz and Paz 2013 notoungulate
MACN PV CH2137
"Prohegetotherium sculptum" = Prohegetotherium sculptum16 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-446, A52-447, A52-449, FMNH P13414, FMNH P14695, AMNH 312 c; and hypodigms of synonyms
"Propachyrucos crassus n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-450, A52-463, A52-448 (lectotype)
"Prohegetotherium shumwayi n. sp." = Prohegetotherium sculptum11 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Progaleopithecus tournoueri n. sp.20, Progaleopithecus fissurellatus n. gen. n. sp.20, "Argyrohyrax proavus n. gen. n. sp." = Argyrohyrax proavus, "Plagiarthrus cliva" = Argyrohyrax proavus11, "Argyrohyrax proavunculus" = Argyrohyrax proavus20
Progaleopithecus tournoueri n. sp.20 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MNH DES 334 - type; referred material: FMNH 14687
Progaleopithecus fissurellatus n. gen. n. sp.20 Ameghino 1904 notoungulate
MACN A52-486 - type
"Argyrohyrax proavus n. gen. n. sp." = Argyrohyrax proavus Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-472 - holotype
"Plagiarthrus cliva" = Argyrohyrax proavus11 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
"Argyrohyrax proavunculus" = Argyrohyrax proavus20 Ameghino 1897 notoungulate
MACN A52-478 and A52-474
 Notoungulata - Mesotheriidae
Eutrachytherus grandis n. sp.11, "Eutrachytherus spegazzinianus" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus11, "Anatrachytherus soriae n. gen. n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus15, "Isoproedrium solitarium" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus11, "Coresodon cancellatus n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus2
Eutrachytherus grandis n. sp.11 Loomis 1914 notoungulate
"Eutrachytherus spegazzinianus" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus11 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-492, MACN A52-491, MACN A52-566, MACN A52-567, MACN A52-493, MACN A52-489, MACN A52-498, MACN A52-496, MACN A52-490, UNPSJB PV 112, AMNH 29564, ACM 3264, ACM s/n and FMNH P13281
"Anatrachytherus soriae n. gen. n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus15 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-490, mandible with left and right i1-2, p2-m2, left m3
"Isoproedrium solitarium" = Trachytherus spegazzinianus11 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
"Coresodon cancellatus n. sp." = Trachytherus spegazzinianus2 Ameghino 1889 notoungulate
MACN A52-566, maxilla dP3-4, M1, holotype
 Notoungulata - Henricosborniidae
Henricosborniidae indet.20 Ameghino 1901 notoungulate
MACN A52-486 (originally part of syntype of Progaleopithecus fissurellatus)
 Rodentia -
Caviomorpha indet.23 caviomorph
ACM 3039, left lower molar
 Rodentia - Cephalomyidae
Cephalomyidae indet.21, Cephalomyopsis "morphotype 3"22, Cephalomys ceciae n. sp.22, "Cephalomys plexus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus, "Cephalomys prosus" = Cephalomys plexus11, "Cephalomys prorsus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus23, "Asteromys annectens n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus23, "Asteromys prospicuus" = Cephalomys plexus11, "Asteromys prospicuus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus, "Cephalomys arcidens n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, "Orchiomys prostans n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens, Litodontomys chubutensis n. gen. n. sp.11
Cephalomyidae indet.21 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN 1295, M1 or M2; MACN 1296, M1 or M2
Cephalomyopsis "morphotype 3"22 Vucetich 1985 caviomorph
Cephalomys ceciae n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10693, left m1 or m2, holotype
"Cephalomys plexus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-99, maxilla P4-M3, lectotype; 52-100, maxilla P4-M3; 52-101, mandible p4-m2; 52-102, mandible p4-m2. 3 in MACN; 17 in Amherst; 1 in FMNH; 2 in AMNH; 4 in YPM; and types of synonyms
"Cephalomys prosus" = Cephalomys plexus11 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
"Cephalomys prorsus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus23 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-103, dentary p4-m3, type
"Asteromys annectens n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus23 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-108, dentary p4-m3 (lectotype); MACN A 52-109, palate with right and left P4-M3
"Asteromys prospicuus" = Cephalomys plexus11 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
"Asteromys prospicuus n. sp." = Cephalomys plexus Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-107, four teeth: left M3 (lectotype), left M1 or M2, right M1 or M2, and a fragment
"Cephalomys arcidens n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-88 (lectotype), palatal fragments with P4-M3, dentary p4-m3; MACN A 52-89 (syntype), partial skull; additional specimens in MACN, Amherst, FMNH, AMNH, YPM, MCZ
"Orchiomys prostans n. gen. n. sp." = Cephalomys arcidens Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-96, dentary with partial dp4 and m1-2
Litodontomys chubutensis n. gen. n. sp.11 Loomis 1914 caviomorph
ACM 3086 - holotype; referred specimen: MPEF- PV 10696
 Rodentia - Chinchillidae
Scotamys antiquus n. gen. n. sp.11, ? Eoviscaccia australis n. sp.21
Scotamys antiquus n. gen. n. sp.11 Loomis 1914 chinchilid
? Eoviscaccia australis n. sp.21 Vucetich 1989 chinchilid
MACN 1297, left m1 or m2; MACN 1298, right m1 or m2
 Rodentia -
Loncolicu tretos n. gen. n. sp.22
Loncolicu tretos n. gen. n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10682, M1-M2, holotype; MPEF-PV 10683, P4-M2; MPEF-PV 10681, dentary p4-m1
 Rodentia - Dasyproctidae
Incamys bolivianus4 Hoffstetter and Lavocat 1970 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10721
Incamys bolivianus14 Hoffstetter and Lavocat 1970 caviomorph
MACN A 52-113, upper cheek tooth
Incamys menniorum n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10685, left m3, holotype; MPEF-PV 10686, M1 or M2
 Rodentia -
Chubutomys simpsoni n. gen. n. sp.23, ? Asteromys punctus22, Asteromys punctus n. gen. n. sp.
Chubutomys simpsoni n. gen. n. sp.23 Wood and Patterson 1959 caviomorph
AMNH 29557, dentary m2-3
? Asteromys punctus22 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 595 isolated right DP4; MPEF-PV 597 isolated left DP4 with damaged lingual wall. MACN 52-87, right dP4; ACM 3054, right M?3
Asteromys punctus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN A 52-110, dentary with p4-m3
 Rodentia - Eocardiidae
Eocardiidae indet.23 Ameghino 1891 caviomorph
ACM 3054, M3; MACN A 52-87, dP4
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
"Eosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus11, "Protosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus23, Protosteiromys asmodeophilus22
"Eosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus11 Ameghino 1903 porcupine
"Protosteiromys medianus" = Protosteiromys medianus23 Ameghino 1903 porcupine
ACM 3014, M1 or M2
Protosteiromys asmodeophilus22 Wood and Patterson 1959 porcupine
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Galileomys baios n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10676, dentary p4-m2, holotype
 Rodentia -
Llitun notuca n. gen. n. sp.22, Acarechimys leucotheae n. sp.22, Deseadomys arambourgi23, Leucokephalos zeffiae n. gen. n. sp.22, Ethelomys loomisi n. gen. n. sp.22, ? Protacaremys adilos n. sp.22
Llitun notuca n. gen. n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10679, dentary i, p4-m2
Acarechimys leucotheae n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10677, dentary i, dp4-m3, holotype
Deseadomys arambourgi23 Wood and Patterson 1959 caviomorph
ACM 3163, P4-M2; ACM 3071, M3
Leucokephalos zeffiae n. gen. n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 583, dentary p4-m2, holotype; MPEF-PV 585, right mandibular fragment with p4–m2 of a juvenile; MPEF-PV 586, left p4–m3 series; MPEF-PV 10680, isolated right p4; MPEF- PV 584, left mandibular fragment with p4-m2 and the incisor; MPEF-PV 10680, isolated right p4.
Ethelomys loomisi n. gen. n. sp.22 caviomorph
ACM 3087, dentary m1-2, holotype; MPEF-PV 571, dentary i, m1-m2
? Protacaremys adilos n. sp.22 Vucetich et al. 2015 caviomorph
MPEF-PV 10678, right m2, holotype
 Astrapotheria - Astrapotheriidae
Parastrapotherium holmbergi11 Ameghino 1894 placental
 Tribosphenida - Pyrotheridae
Pyrotherium sorondoi11 Ameghino 1894 placental
 Xenarthra - Dasypodidae
Proeuphractus setiger11 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
"Proeutatus lagenaformis" = Meteutatus lagenaformis11 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
Prozaedius impressus11 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
Prozaedius planus11 Ameghino 1897 armadillo
 Xenarthra - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus undulatus11 Ameghino 1897 edentate
 Edentata -
"Edentata indet." = Xenarthra11
"Edentata indet." = Xenarthra11 Cope 1889 edentate
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
Palaeopeltis inornatus11 Ameghino 1894 glyptodon
 Litopterna - Adianthidae
Tricoelodus bicuspidatus n. gen. n. sp., "Proadianthus excavatus" = Proadiantus excavatus11, "Proadiantus excavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus, "Proadiantus pungidens n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus6
Tricoelodus bicuspidatus n. gen. n. sp. Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN A52-203, dentary p4-m2, holotype; MACN A52-615, dentary m3; FMNH P14698, right P3-M2 and left ?C, P2-3, M1-3; FMNH P14696, right m2-3
"Proadianthus excavatus" = Proadiantus excavatus11 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
Ameghino
"Proadiantus excavatus n. gen. n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN A52-13, dentary p3-4, holotype; A52-217, dentary p4-m1; A52-215, dentary m1-3
"Proadiantus pungidens n. sp." = Proadiantus excavatus6 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
MACN A52-214, dentary i2-c, p2-m2, lectotype
 Litopterna - Macraucheniidae
Cramauchenia normalis8 Ameghino 1902 eutherian
MPEF-PV 2524
Notodiaphorus crassus n. gen. n. sp.11 eutherian
 Litopterna - Proterotheriidae
Deuterotherium distichum11 Ameghino 1894 eutherian
Ameghino
 Litopterna - Mesorhinidae
Protheosodon coniferus11 Ameghino 1897 eutherian
 Sparassodonta -
"Notogale mitis" = Notogale mitis13, "Pharsophorus mitis" = Notogale mitis11
"Notogale mitis" = Notogale mitis13 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
(Ameghino 1897)
"Pharsophorus mitis" = Notogale mitis11 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Australohyaena antiqua9 Ameghino 1894 metatherian
UNPJSB PV 113, rostrum, basicranium, both dentaries, and dentition, except left i2, right i4 and right p1.
Pharsophorus tenax11 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
Pharsophorus lacerans13 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
3 more MACN specimens may be from Cabeza Blanca
 Sparassodonta - Proborhyaenidae
Proborhyaena gigantea13 Ameghino 1897 metatherian
(Ameghino 1897) probably Cabeza Blanca
 Theriiformes -
"Notogale tenuis" = Pharsophorus tenuis13
"Notogale tenuis" = Pharsophorus tenuis13 Ameghino 1897 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897) Probably from Cabeza Blanca
 Paucituberculata - Palaeothentidae
Parabderites minusculus13, "Callomenus praecursor n. sp." = Palaeothentes praecursor11, "Palaeothentes lucina" = Palaeothentes lucina13, "Pilchenia lucina n. sp." = Palaeothentes lucina11, "Palaeothentes chubutensis" = Palaeothentes chubutensis13, "Epanorthus chubutensis" = Palaeothentes chubutensis11
Parabderites minusculus13 Ameghino 1902 marsupial
(Ameghino 1902)
"Callomenus praecursor n. sp." = Palaeothentes praecursor11 Loomis 1914 marsupial
"Palaeothentes lucina" = Palaeothentes lucina13 Ameghino 1904 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897)
"Pilchenia lucina n. sp." = Palaeothentes lucina11 Ameghino 1904 marsupial
MACN 52-371, isolated m3, holotype, probably from Cabeza Blanca; AC 3110, dentary p3-m4, certainly from here
"Palaeothentes chubutensis" = Palaeothentes chubutensis13 Ameghino 1897 marsupial
(Ameghino 1897)
"Epanorthus chubutensis" = Palaeothentes chubutensis11 Ameghino 1897 marsupial