Rihane Outcrop, Jezzine (Lebanese amber) (Cretaceous of Lebanon)

Also known as Al-Rihan

Where: Lebanon (33.6° N, 35.6° E: paleocoordinates 9.2° N, 31.7° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Early/Lower Barremian (130.0 - 125.5 Ma)

• Amber found in three intervals in the upper part of the Grès du Liban. Rihane is found in the lower interval, located below the pisolitic interval. The "Banc de Mrejatt" includes one biostratigraphically significant benthic foraminifer: Eopalorbitolina transiens (Cherchi and Schroeder, 1999), which is a zonal marker of the Lower to Upper Barremian transition according to Schroeder et al. (2010). Accordingly the “Banc de Mrejatt” is correlated to the transgression of sequence Ba3 of Clavel et al. (2007) and ascribed a late Early Barremian age. the pisolitic interval or “calcaires à pisolithes” of Heybroek (1942), consists of lacustrine shales and marls, locally with pisolites ranging in size from a hazel nut to an orange. Charophyte remains (thalli, utricles, and gyrogonites) are commonly found in this interval (Grambast and Lorch, 1968; Granier et al., 2015). For instance, from Ain Dara, Falougha and Homsiyeh, Granier et al. (2015) list: Ascidiella reticulata Grambast and Lorch, 1968, Atopochara trivolvis var. triquetra Grambast, 1968, Clavator ampullaceus (Grambast and Lorch, 1968), C. delteus (Grambast and Lorch, 1968), Sphaerochara asema (Grambast and Lorch, 1968), as well as Charaxis martinclosasi Granier et al., 2015, and Munieria parvula (Carozzi, 1946), but also rare calcareous algae, Salpingoporella (Hensonella) dinarica (Radoičić, 1959), and benthic foraminifers, Choffatella gr. decipiens Schlumberger, 1905. According to Martín-Closas (2015, personal communication), the charophyte association should refer to the Cruciata-Paucibracteatus biozone of Martín-Closas et al. (2009) that spans the Late Barremian–Early Aptian interval. However, due to its topographic location, this interval is older than the “Banc de Mrejatt” and should be considered at least Early Barremian in age. Lower interval is dated Early Barremian or earlier, although amber may be reworked from older units (Maksoud et al., 2016).

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithified amber

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: soft parts, original chitin, amber

Collection methods: Repository: Lebanese University

Primary reference: P. Vršanský, T. van de Kamp, D. Azar, A. Prokin, L. Vidlička and P. Vagovic. 2013. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs. PLoS One 8(12):e80560 [M. Clapham/M. Clapham/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 153333: authorized by Matthew Clapham, entered by Matthew Clapham on 10.12.2013

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Hemiptera - Perforissidae
Aafrita biladalshama3 Szwedo and Azar 2013 planthopper
 Dicondylia - Blattulidae
Blattulidae indet. Vishnyakova 1982 winged insect
 Mantodea -
Burmantis lebanensis2 Grimaldi 2003 mantis
 Neuroptera - Berothidae
Sibelliberotha rihanensis n. gen. n. sp.1
Sibelliberotha rihanensis n. gen. n. sp.1 Azar and Nel 2013 beaded lacewing