Castle Gardens (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as UCMP V-99019; UCMP V99019; USGS D2018

Where: Washakie County, Wyoming (44.0° N, 107.6° W: paleocoordinates 48.6° N, 90.5° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Wa-0 zone, Willwood Formation, Wasatchian (55.8 - 50.3 Ma)

• "ca. 10 meter thick layer"

•said to be a Wa0 fauna and in the general area of the Elk Creek section, but exact level unclear

•said to be "< 30 m" in the southern Bighorn Basin section by Holroyd et al. 2001; 15 m level is arbitrary

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; gray mudstone

• "light gray mudstone with drab orange mottling"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Reposited in the UCMP

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, surface (float), sieve

Primary reference: S. G. Strait. 2001. New Wa-0 mammalian fauna from Castle Gardens in the southeastern Bighorn Basin. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 33:127-143 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 15458: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 13.10.1999, edited by Jason Head, Jonathan Marcot and Terri Cleary

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Hyopsodus loomisi, Diacodexis sp, Palaeanodon sp. are listed by Strait 1999 but omitted by Strait 2001
Actinopteri
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia sp. Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp. de Lacep├Ęde 1803 gar
Osteichthyes
 Salientia -
Anura indet. frog
"frogs"
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
see Holroyd et al. 2001
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Echmatemys sp. Hay 1906 turtle
see Holroyd et al. 2001
 Crocodylia -
Borealosuchus sp. Brochu 1997 crocodilian
see Holroyd et al. 2001
 Squamata -
Squamata indet. Oppel 1811 lizard
"lizards"
Entomophontes incrustatus5 Smith and Gauthier 2013 lizard
UCMP 150871, 150872 (jaw fragments), 150920 (jaw fragment), 150969 (parietal fragment), 151038 (left frontal; Fig. 19B), 151067 (right maxilla fragment), 151095 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 19A), 167499 (right maxilla fragment), 167553 (left maxilla fragment).
 Squamata - Necrosauridae
cf. Provaranosaurus "sp. CG"3 Gilmore 1942 lizard
UCMP 167299, right dentary fragment
 Squamata -
cf. Saniwa "sp. CG-1"3 Leidy 1870 lizard
UCMP 150921 (jaw fragment with partial tooth), 151099 (premaxilla), 167572 (jaw fragment with tooth).
Saniwa "sp. CG-2"3 Leidy 1870 lizard
UCMP 150873 (right dentary fragment with tooth), 150971 (tooth), 167324 (distal right humerus), 167336 (edentulous left dentary fragment), 167355 (parietal fragment).
 Squamata - Anguidae
Gerrhonotinae "CG"3 Cope 1864 lizard
UCMP 150867 (left dentary fragment), 151094 (jaw fragment), 167255 (left maxilla fragment; Fig. 14A), 167268 (partial frontal; Fig. 14E), 167401 (left pterygoid fragment; Fig. 14C), ?167407 (frontal fragment), 167444 (left dentary fragment), 167500 (left jugal; Fig. 14D), 167511 (parietal fragment), 400181 (jaw fragment; Fig. 14B)
Glyptosaurinae "CG"3 Marsh 1872 lizard
UCMP 151033 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 16B), ?151068 (left pterygoid fragment), 151935 (parietal fragment; Fig. 17), 167269 (parietal fragment), ?167613 (right palatine fragment).
Gaultia silvaticus n. gen. n. sp.3 Smith 2009 lizard
UCMP 216000 (holotype), partial frontal; Paratypes: UCMP 150857 (partial parietal), 150928 (parietal fragment), 150966 (partial left frontal; Fig. 18E, F), 150967 (partial right dentary; Fig. 18K), 150968 (parietal fragment), 151030 (left and right dentary fragments; left one: Fig. 18J), 151034-151037 (jaw fragments), 151040 (parietal fragment), 151058 (dentary fragment), 151063, 151064 (jaw fragments), 151065 (right maxilla fragment; Figs 16C, 18B), 167245 (partial parietal; Fig. 18G, H), 167285 (left frontal fragment), 167296 (osteoderm), 167418 (skull fragment), 167523 (partial right palatine; Fig. 18C). Referred: UCMP 151044 (premaxilla; Fig. 18A), 167654 (right quadrate fragment; Fig. 18I).
Proxestops "sp. CG"3 Gauthier 1982 lizard
UCMP 150828 (left maxilla fragment), 150856 (jaw fragment), 150861, 150862 (left maxilla fragments), 150863 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 16A), 150865 (partial left dentary), 150866, 150868, 150869 (jaw fragments), 150961 (partial parietal; Fig. 15C, D), 150983, 150984 (right maxilla fragments), 151038 (left frontal), 151061 (dentary fragment), ?151099 (premaxilla fragment), 151930 (dentary fragment), 167253 (left dentary fragment; Fig. 15E), ?167254 (left maxilla fragment), 167267 (right frontal fragment), 167337 (left pterygoid fragment; Fig. 15A), 167400 (palatine), 167510 (small partial right frontal), 167511 (partial parietal), 167513 (parietal fragment), 167610 (left dentary fragment), 167614 (left frontal fragment), 167629 (jaw fragment), ?167673 (right jugal fragment; Fig. 15B)
Apodosauriscus thermophilus n. sp.3 Smith 2009 lizard
UCMP 167422 (holotype), left frontal fragment; Paratypes: UCMP 167266 (right maxilla fragment), 167411 (parietal fragment; Fig. 1 1B, C), 167412 (left frontal fragment), 167421 (skull fragment), 167515 (left frontal fragment), 167603 (left dentary fragment; Fig. 1 1E), 400178 (left dentary fragment; Fig. 1 1D), 400179 (left dentary fragment). Referred: UCMP 167408 (left frontal fragment).
cf. Eodiploglossus "sp. CG"3 Gauthier 1982 lizard
UCMP 150916 (right maxilla fragment), 150919 (right frontal), 150962 (partial left frontal; Fig. 12D), 151070,151071 (skull fragments), 167338 (partial right frontal), 167426 (left maxilla fragment; Fig. 12A), 167447 (left maxilla fragment), 167456 (jaw fragment), ?167527 (right pterygoid fragment; Fig. 12C), 167602 (right dentary fragment), 400180 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 12B).
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae "CG"3, Suzanniwana patriciana n. gen. n. sp.3, Anolbanolis banalis n. gen. n. sp.3
Iguanidae "CG"3 Oppel 1811 lizard
UCMP 151078, right dentary fragment; 400156, partial right postorbital; 400169, partial right squamosal
Suzanniwana patriciana n. gen. n. sp.3 Smith 2009 lizard
UCMP 167664 (holotype), right postorbital; Paratypes: UCMP 150831 (right dentary fragment), 150833, 150834, 150836 (left dentary fragments), 150837 (right dentary fragment; Fig. 3P), 150838, 150839 (right dentary fragments), 150840, 150843, 150845 (dentary fragments), 150851, 150882 (jaw fragments), 150889 (premaxilla fragment), 150907, 150910, 150929 (jaw fragments), 150991, 150995 (jaw fragments), 151000 (frontal; Fig. 2P), 151006,151009 (jaw fragments), 151010 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 2F), 151082 (left dentary fragment), 151083, 151084 (jaw fragments), 151089 (dentary fragment), 151939 (right maxilla fragment), 167244 (frontal), 167252 (dentary fragment), 167291 (prefrontal fragment), 167305 (left dentary fragment), 167353 (frontal fragment), 167376, 167378 (jugal fragments), 167380 (partial right jugal; Fig. 3A), 167402 (ectopterygoid fragment), 167403 (partial right ectopterygoid; Fig. 2H), 167406 (ectopterygoid), 167420 (partial right prefrontal; Fig. 2N, O), 167425 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 2E), 167497 (jugal fragment), 167502,167506, 167508 (frontal fragments), 167524 (jugal fragment), 167531 (partial ectopterygoid), 167588 (partial articulated dentary and splenial; Fig. 3N, O), 167590 (right dentary fragment), 167653 (partial frontal), 167660 (right prefrontal; Fig. 2M), 167666 (premaxilla; Fig. 2A), 400154 (partial right postorbital; Fig. 3E-G), 400155 (partial right postorbital), 400161 (partial right ectopterygoid; Fig. 2I-L), 400162-400164 (partial right ectopterygoids), 400165 (left ectopterygoid fragment), 400170 (right jugal fragment; Fig. 3B), 400171 (left jugal fragment; Fig. 3C), 400172 (frontal fragment; Fig. 2Q), 400173 (frontal fragment; Fig. 2R), 400176 (partial parietal; Fig. 3H-K), 400177 (partial premaxilla; Fig. 2B, C, D). Referred specimens: UCMP 167399 (right pterygoid fragment; Fig. 2G), 400168 (partial left squamosal; Fig. 3L, M).
Anolbanolis banalis n. gen. n. sp.3 Smith 2009 lizard
UCMP 400150 (holotype), partial right postorbital; Paratypes: UCMP 150882 (left squamosal fragment), 150883 (partial right postorbital), 150892 (partial left postorbital; Fig. 5R), 150929 (left squamosal fragment), 150998, 151002 (jaw fragments), 151086 (left dentary fragment; Fig. 6G), 151087, 151090 (left dentary fragments), 167241 (partial parietal; Fig. 6D), 167242 (partial parietal; Fig. 6AC), 167290 (jugal fragment), 167292 (frontal fragment; Fig. 5J), 167293 (posterior fragment of frontal), 167305 (left dentary fragment), 167381 (right jugal fragment, Fig. 5N), 167384 (left jugal fragment, Fig. 5M), 167409, 167410 (frontal fragments), 167415 (partial parietal), 167424 (right maxilla fragment; Fig. 5A), 167453, 167454 (dentary fragments), 167498 (parietal fragment), 167501,167505 (frontal fragments), 167539, 167540, 167542, 167578, 167583 (jaw fragments), 167585 (right maxilla fragment), 167586 (left maxilla fragment), 167587 (left maxilla fragment; Fig. 5B), 167662 (left prefrontal; Fig. 5H, I), 400151 (right postorbital fragment; Fig. 5S, T), 400152 (partial left postorbital; Fig. 5U, V), 400153 (partial left postorbital; Fig. 5W, X), 400158 (partial left ectopterygoid; Fig. 5D-G), 400159 (partial left ectopterygoid), 400160 (partial right ectopterygoid), 400166 (partial left squamosal; Fig. 6E, F), 400167 (right squamosal fragment), 400174 (partial frontal; Fig. 5K), 400175 (frontal fragment; Fig. 5L). Referred specimen: UCMP 167398 (right pterygoid fragment; Fig. 5C)
 Squamata - Bipedidae
Anniealexandria gansi n. gen. n. sp.3
Anniealexandria gansi n. gen. n. sp.3 Smith 2009 worm lizard
UCMP 167594 (holotype) partial left dentary. Paratypes: UCMP 150852-150854 (dentary fragments), 150855 (anterior half of right maxilla; Fig. 10C, D), 150886- 150888 (vertebra fragments), 150903-150906 (dentary fragments), 150912 (vertebra; Fig. 10H), 150941 (vertebra), 150949, 150976-150980, 150982 (dentary fragments), 151008 (left maxilla fragment), 151072 (dentary fragment), 151073 (right maxilla), 151074-151076 (dentary fragments), 151081 (right maxilla fragment), 151940 (right dentary fragment), 167258, 167259 (dentary fragments), 167262 (premaxilla; Fig. 10A, B), 167263 (right maxilla), 167301,167303,167304,167435-167439 (dentary fragments), 167440 (left maxilla), 167534, 167536-167538 (dentary fragments), 167570 (premaxilla), 167592, 167593 (dentary fragments), 167595 (partial right dentary; Fig. 10E), 167596, 167597 (dentary fragments).
 Squamata - Xantusiidae
Xantusiidae "CG"3 Baird 1858 night lizard
UCMP 150827 (right maxilla fragment), 150965 (maxilla fragment; Fig. 8A, B), 150970 (right maxilla fragment), 167413 (left frontal fragment), 167495 (right maxilla fragment), 167575 (premaxilla), 167599 (right maxilla fragment), 167600 (left maxilla fragment).
Palepidophyma paradisa n. gen. n. sp.5 Smith and Gauthier 2013 night lizard
UCMP 150827 (holotype), partial left maxilla; Paratypes: UCMP 150965, 150970 (right maxilla fragments), 167413 (left frontal fragment; Figure 11I, J), 167495 (right maxilla fragment), 167575 (premaxilla; Figure 11A, B), 167599 (right maxilla fragment), 167600 (left maxilla fragment).
Palaeoxantusia "sp. CG"3 Hecht 1956 night lizard
UCMP 150829 (right dentary fragment), 150830 (left dentary fragment), 150848 (premaxilla; Fig. 9A, B), 150876 (partial right pterygoid; Fig. 9E), 150972, 150973 (right maxilla fragments), 150974 (partial left maxilla; Fig. 9C), 150975 (left maxilla fragment), 150986, 151029, 151069 (right dentary fragments), 151077 (left dentary fragment), 151080 (right dentary fragment), 167257 (dentary fragment), 167271 (right dentary fragment), 167289 (left pterygoid fragment; Fig. 9D), 167302 (right dentary fragment), 167334 (left maxilla fragment), 167390 (partial right quadrate; Fig. 9F-I), 167412 (left frontal fragment), 167460 (right spleniodentary fragment; Fig. 9J), 167533 (left dentary), 167550 (premaxilla).
Mammalia
 Cimolesta - Coryphodontidae
Coryphodon sp. Owen 1845 pantodont
 Primates - Microsyopidae
Niptomomys favorum n. sp. Strait 2001 primate
 Primates - Micromomyidae
cf. Tinimomys graybulliensis Szalay 1974 primate
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
cf. Paramys copei Loomis 1907 rodent
Paramys taurus Korth 1984 rodent
Acritoparamys atwateri Loomis 1907 rodent
 Rodentia - Cylindrodontidae
"Reithroparamys ctenodactylops" = Tuscahomys ctenodactylops6
"Reithroparamys ctenodactylops" = Tuscahomys ctenodactylops6 Korth 1984 rodent
 Condylarthra - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus sp.6 Leidy 1870 condylarth
 Tribosphenida - Phenacodontidae
Ectocion parvus Granger 1915 condylarth
Copecion davisi Gingerich 1989 condylarth
Phenacodus cf. vortmani Cope 1880 condylarth
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hyracotherium grangeri" = Sifrhippus grangeri
"Hyracotherium grangeri" = Sifrhippus grangeri Gingerich 1989 horse
 Tribosphenida - Parapternodontidae
cf. Parapternodus sp.6 Bown and Schankler 1982 placental
 Tribosphenida - Nyctitheriidae
cf. Pontifactor sp.6 West 1974 placental
Wyonycteris sp.6 Gingerich 1987 placental
Plagioctenodon savagei Bown and Schankler 1982 placental
 Ferae - Viverravidae
Didymictis sp. Cope 1875 placental
cf. Viverravus politus Matthew and Granger 1915 placental
 Ferae -
Vassacyon bowni n. sp.2 Heinrich et al. 2008 placental
 Carnivora - Miacidae
Miacis deutschi Gingerich 1983 carnivoran
 Macroscelidea - Amphilemuridae
Macrocranion junnei4 Smith et al. 2002 elephant shrew
 Taeniodonta - Stylinodontidae
Ectoganus sp. Cope 1874 taeniodont
 Tribosphenida - Arctocyonidae
Thryptacodon barae Gingerich 1989 condylarth
Princetonia yalensis Gingerich 1989 condylarth
Chriacus sp. Cope 1883 condylarth
Chriacus badgleyi Gingerich 1989 condylarth
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
Dissacus praenuntius Matthew and Granger 1915 condylarth
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Acarictis ryani Gingerich and Deutsch 1989 eutherian
cf. Arfia junnei Gingerich 1989 eutherian
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Mimoperadectes labrus Bown and Rose 1979 metatherian
Peradectes protinnominatus McKenna 1960 metatherian
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
"Copedelphys innominata" = Herpetotherium innominatum1
"Copedelphys innominata" = Herpetotherium innominatum1 Simpson 1928 marsupial
 Sarcobora - Apatemyidae
Apatemys sp. Marsh 1872 insectivoran
 Multituberculata - Neoplagiaulacidae
cf. Parectypodus lunatus Krause 1982 multituberculate
Ectypodus tardus Jepsen 1940 multituberculate
Dicotyledonae
 Urticales - Dilleniidae