South Pass (Gardnerbuttean) (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as Honeycomb Buttes

Where: Fremont County, Wyoming (42.4° N, 108.9° W: paleocoordinates 46.2° N, 94.9° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Wasatch Formation, Bridgerian (50.3 - 46.2 Ma)

• spans upper chron C24n and lower chron C23r: Clyde et al. 2001

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial-lacustrine; brown shale and gypsiferous carbonate

• fossils are from "channel lags, sheet wash concentrations, and along ancient lake 'strand lines'"
• ""thick brown paper shales interbedded with relatively pure carbonate, trona, and gypsum beds"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: G. F. Gunnell and W. S. Bartels. 2001. Basin margins, biodiversity, evolutionary innovation, and the origin of new taxa. Eocene biodiversity: unusual occurrences and rarely sampled habitats (G. F. Gunnell, ed.) 403-432 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 15837: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 21.09.1998

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
said to be new
Trionychinae indet.2 softshell turtle
"Amyda aequa" = Trionyx aequa Hay 1908 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Baenidae
Baenidae indet. Cope 1882 turtle
 Testudines - Adocidae
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis Leidy 1869 turtle
 Testudines - Carettochelyidae
Anosteira ornata Leidy 1871 turtle
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Echmatemys wyomingensis Leidy 1869 turtle
"Echmatemys septaria" = Echmatemys stevensoniana Leidy 1870 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emydidae indet. Rafinesque 1815 turtle
said to be new
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
"Crocodylus" affinis Marsh 1871 crocodile
 Crocodylia -
"Diplocynodon" sp. Pomel 1847 crocodilian
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Procaimanoidea sp. Gilmore 1946 crocodilian
 Crocodylia - Planocraniidae
"Pristichampsus vorax" = Boverisuchus vorax
"Pristichampsus vorax" = Boverisuchus vorax Troxell 1925 crocodilian
 Squamata -
Restes rugosus Gauthier 1982 squamates
xenosaurid lizard
Saniwa ensidens Leidy 1870 squamates
varanid lizard
 Squamata - Anguidae
Glyptosaurinae indet. Marsh 1872 squamates
"large"
Xestops vagans Marsh 1872 squamates
anguid lizard
Glyptosaurus sylvestris Marsh 1871 squamates
Machaerosaurus torrejonensis Gilmore 1928 squamates
anguid lizard
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Parasauromalus olseni Gilmore 1928 squamates
iguanid lizard
 Squamata - Agamidae
Tinosaurus sp. Marsh 1872 squamates
agamid lizard
 Squamata -
Coniophis sp. Marsh 1892 snake
boid snake
 Squamata - Boidae
Boavus occidentalis Marsh 1871 boa
boid snake
Calamagras primus Hecht 1959 dwarf boa
boid snake
 Squamata - Tropidophiidae
Dunnophis microechinus dwarf boa
boid snake
 Squamata - Amphisbaenidae
 Squamata - Xantusiidae
Palaeoxantusia sp. Hecht 1956 night lizard
xantusiid lizard
Mammalia
 Primates - Microsyopidae
Microsyops knightensis Gazin 1952 primate
Microsyops cf. scottianus Cope 1881 primate
 Primates - Omomyidae
Artimonius nocerai4 Robinson 1966 tarsier
Artimonius witteri4 Morris 1954 tarsier
Trogolemur sp.4 Matthew 1909 tarsier
Omomys lloydi Gazin 1958 tarsier
UM SP-23: Muldoon and Gunnell 2002
Omomys carteri Leidy 1869 tarsier
UM SP-46, 79, 110, 122: Muldoon and Gunnell 2002
Utahia carina n. sp.4 Muldoon and Gunnell 2002 tarsier
said to be new
Washakius izetti Honey 1990 tarsier
at UM SP-6, 23, 26, 28, 37, 79, 110, 127: Muldoon and Gunnell 2002
Washakius insignis Leidy 1873 tarsier
at UM SP-1, 23, 28, 35, 79, 122: Muldoon and Gunnell 2002
Uintanius rutherfurdi Robinson 1966 tarsier
UM SP-28: Muldoon and Gunnell 2002
 Primates - Notharctidae
Notharctus robinsoni Gingerich 1979 primate
Notharctus venticolus Osborn 1902 primate
Cantius nunienus Cope 1881 primate
Smilodectes sororis n. sp.3 Gunnell 2002 primate
said to be new
 Cimolesta - Pantolestidae
Pantolestidae indet. Cope 1884 eutherian
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
Leptictidae indet. Gill 1872 eutherian
 Rodentia - Sciuravidae
Sciuravidae indet. Miller and Gidley 1918 rodent
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Microparamys sp. Wood 1959 rodent
 Rodentia - Paramyidae
Paramyidae indet. Miller and Gidley 1918 rodent
"3-4 species"
 Rodentia - Cylindrodontidae
Cylindrodontidae indet. Miller and Gidley 1918 rodent
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
Palaeosyops fontinalis Cope 1873 brontothere
"Eotitanops minimus" = Eotitanops borealis Cope 1880 brontothere
 Perissodactyla - Hyrachyidae
Hyrachyus sp. Leidy 1871 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla -
Helaletes sp. Marsh 1872 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Isectolophidae
Isectolophidae indet. Peterson 1919 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Orohippus sp. Marsh 1872 horse
 Perissodactyla - Palaeotheriidae
Hyracotherium sp. Owen 1841 odd-toed ungulate
 Ferae - Viverravidae
Didymictis altidens Cope 1880 placental
Viverravus gracilis Marsh 1872 placental
Viverravus sicarius Matthew 1909 placental
Viverravus minutus Wortman 1901 placental
 Ferae -
Oodectes sp. Wortman 1901 placental
Uintacyon sp. Leidy 1873 placental
 Carnivora - Miacidae
Miacis sp. Cope 1872 carnivoran
 Carnivora -
Vulpavus cf. australis Matthew and Granger 1915 carnivoran
Vulpavus cf. canavus Cope 1881 carnivoran
 Ferae - Epoicotheriidae
Epoicotheriidae indet. Simpson 1927 placental
 Ferae - Metacheiromyidae
Metacheiromyidae indet. Wortman 1903 placental
Brachianodon westorum Gunnell and Gingerich 1993 placental
 Macroscelidea - Amphilemuridae
Scenopagus sp. McKenna and Simpson 1959 elephant shrew
 Taeniodonta - Stylinodontidae
 Trogontia - Esthonychidae
Esthonyx sp. Cope 1874 tillodont
Trogosus sp. Leidy 1871 tillodont
 Ungulata - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus sp. Leidy 1870 condylarth
 Ungulata - Uintatheriidae
Bathyopsis sp. Cope 1881 uintathere
 Ungulata - Homacodontidae
Antiacodon sp. Marsh 1872 even-toed ungulate
"small"
Microsus sp. Leidy 1870 even-toed ungulate
said to be new
Hexacodus sp. Gazin 1952 even-toed ungulate
said to be new
 Ungulata - Diacodexeidae
Bunophorus sp. Sinclair 1914 even-toed ungulate
 Insectivora - Apatemyidae
Apatemys sp. Marsh 1872 insectivoran
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
? Mesonyx sp. Cope 1871 condylarth
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Sinopa sp. Leidy 1871 eutherian
Tritemnodon sp. Matthew 1906 eutherian
 Hyaenodonta -
Prolimnocyon sp. Matthew and Granger 1915 eutherian
Thinocyon sp. Marsh 1872 eutherian
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Peradectes sp. Matthew and Granger 1921 metatherian
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
"Herpetotheriinae indet." = Herpetotheriidae1
"Herpetotheriinae indet." = Herpetotheriidae1 Trouessart 1879 marsupial
 Oxyaenodonta - Oxyaenidae
Patriofelis sp. Leidy 1870