Church Buttes (Eocene of the United States)

Where: Uinta County, Wyoming (41.2° N, 110.5° W: paleocoordinates 45.2° N, 96.8° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: lower Member (Bridger Formation), Bridgerian (50.3 - 46.2 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by Marsh, Smith

Primary reference: C. L. Gazin. 1976. Mammalian Faunal Zones of the Bridger Middle Eocene. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 26:1-25 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Marcot]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 16201: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 26.03.1995, edited by Roger Benson, Terri Cleary, Matthew Carrano and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Testudines - Baenidae
Baena arenosa8 Leidy 1870 turtle
A second nearly complete specimen of a shell of Baena was discovered by Dr. J. Van A. Carter at Church Buttes, on Black's Fork of Green River, three miles north of Fort Bridger, and was obligingly sent to the writer as a gift.
Baena affinis n. sp.1 Leidy 1871 turtle
ANSP 10055 (type specimen of Baena affinis Leidy, 1871a, p. 367; Leidy, 1873, p. 163, pl. 13 fig. 3), a shell, collected by J. Van A. Carter
 Testudines - Carettochelyidae
Anosteira ornata7 Leidy 1871 turtle
some of the four, now lost, types (possibly including USNM 4062), others were from Grizzly Buttes [PaleoDB collection 16228]
 Testudines - Pantrionychidae
Trionyx guttatus n. sp.7 Leidy 1869 turtle
lost holotype carapace reported by Leidy (1869)
Trionyx heteroglyptus n. sp.7 Cope 1873 turtle
AMNH 1039, holotype hinder half of a carapace and the complete nuchal bone collected in 1872, by Professor Cope, on the summit of Church Butte
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
"Echmatemys ocyrrhoe n. sp." = Echmatemys stevensoniana7
"Echmatemys ocyrrhoe n. sp." = Echmatemys stevensoniana7 Leidy 1870 turtle
AMNH 5933 (holotype), an almost complete shell (Hay 1908, figs. 432, 433)
 Testudines - Adocidae
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis7
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis7 Leidy 1869 turtle
First reported by Leidy
 Squamata - Boidae
Boavus occidentalis3 Marsh 1871 boa
AMNH 6058, portions of 28 thoracic vertebrae
Mammalia
 Cimolesta - Esthonychidae
Trogosus gazini10 Miyata 2007 tillodont
"low in Bridger B" 2 mi S of Church Buttes
Trogosus gazini10 Miyata 2007 tillodont
 Primates - Notharctidae
"Notharctus tenebrosus" = Notharctus tenebrosus11, "Notharctus pugnax" = Notharctus tenebrosus5
"Notharctus tenebrosus" = Notharctus tenebrosus11 Leidy 1870 primate
"Notharctus pugnax" = Notharctus tenebrosus5 Leidy 1870 primate
"low down in Horizon B"; matches second, much larger group of "N. tenebrosus" specimens in chart of Robinson 1957; see also Gingerich 1979a
 Primates - Omomyidae
Washakius insignis2 Leidy 1873 primate
Bridger B
 Condylarthra - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus paulus n. sp.9 Leidy 1870 condylarth
of Leidy from "Lower Bridger," said by Redline 1997 to be from "Smith's Fork," and Gazin 1976 to be from general "Fort Bridger" area; also specimen of West 1979 from "low B"
Hyopsodus minusculus13 Leidy 1873 condylarth
"low B"
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
"Palaeosyops paludosus n. sp." = Palaeosyops paludosus, "Palaeosyops laevidens" = Palaeosyops paludosus6
"Palaeosyops paludosus n. sp." = Palaeosyops paludosus Leidy 1870 brontothere
from Bridger B1; see Osborn 1929; said by Osborn 1908 to be from Cottonwood Creek
"Palaeosyops laevidens" = Palaeosyops paludosus6 Leidy 1870 brontothere
lower Bridger B
 Perissodactyla - Hyrachyidae
Hyrachyus modestus16 Leidy 1870 odd-toed ungulate
Bridger B
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Xenicohippus craspedotum4 Cope 1880 horse
 Carnivora -
"Miacis hargeri" = Vulpavus hargeri
"Miacis hargeri" = Vulpavus hargeri Wortman 1901 carnivoran
level not stated; see also Thorpe 1923a
 Xenarthra -
"Aquila antiqua n. sp." = Minerva antiqua15
"Aquila antiqua n. sp." = Minerva antiqua15 Shufeldt 1913 edentate
1905 Sinclair specimen from "Church Buttes"
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
Mesonyx obtusidens12 Cope 1871 condylarth
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Sinopa sp.9, "Tritemnodon agilis" = Sinopa agilis, Sinopa minor17, Sinopa major n. sp.17, Limnocyon verus12, "Thinocyon velox" = Limnocyon velox12
Sinopa sp.9 Leidy 1871 eutherian
Bridger B2; compared to S. pungens and S. rapax and definitely not the same as the type of S. major, which was said to be from Church Buttes by Thorpe 1923a, although this was questioned by Gazin 1976 on biochronological grounds
"Tritemnodon agilis" = Sinopa agilis Marsh 1872 eutherian
lower Bridger, see Thorpe 1923a
Sinopa minor17 Wortman 1902 eutherian
Sinopa major n. sp.17 Wortman 1902 eutherian
Limnocyon verus12 Marsh 1872 eutherian
level not stated
"Thinocyon velox" = Limnocyon velox12 Marsh 1872 eutherian
"probably" lower Bridger
 Artiodactyla - Homacodontidae
Microsus cuspidatus14 Leidy 1870 even-toed ungulate
"South of Church Buttes" in Bridger B