F45/f0394, middle Gore Lignite Measure, Newvale Mine (Oligocene to of New Zealand)

Also known as GLM

Where: Southland, New Zealand (46.1° S, 168.8° E: paleocoordinates 51.7° S, 178.8° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Late/Upper Oligocene to Late/Upper Oligocene (28.4 - 16.0 Ma)

• The age of the middle Gore Lignite Measure is Late Oligocene to Early Miocene based on studies of palynofloras of Otago and Southland by Pocknall & Mildenhall (1984) and Mildenhall & Pocknall (1989); and the close association between marine strata ok Waitakian age and the lower and middle Gore Lignite Measures. More precise dating of the Gore Lignite Measures is currently difficult, because of problems with precise correlation with the marine stages, and a lack of independent dating of the boundaries (Cooper, 2004).

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; lignite

• Coastal deltaic swamps (Carpenter et al., 2010).
• The mummified leaves are embedded in a leaf-rich lens within the lignite. Leaves occur in small clusters together in lignite blocks or singly on bedding plains (Lee et al., 2007).GLM consist of 10 major seams or seam groups separated by sandstone and mudstone which are overlain by 60 m or more of quartzosesandy conglomerate (Carpenter et al., 2010).

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: adpression, amber

Collection methods: chemical, peroxide, sieve

• Individual fossil-leaf and cuticle specimens were catalogued with OU prefixes for the Department of Geology, University of Otago, and all leaf

•specimens are housed there. Cuticle specimens on microscope slides and SEM stubs are currently housed at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide. (Carpenter et al., 2010)

Primary reference: D. E. Lee, J. M. Bannister, and J. K. Lindqvist. 2007. Late Oligocene — Early Miocene leaf macrofossils confirm a long history of Agathis in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 45(4):565-578 [C. Jaramillo/C. Jaramillo]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 169981: authorized by Carlos Jaramillo, entered by Carlos Jaramillo on 09.06.2015

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Nyssapollenites
  -
Nyssapollenites endobalteus6 Mildenhall and Pocknall 1989
(Mallotus/Macaranga, Euphorbiaceae
Pinopsida
 Pinales - Podocarpaceae
Dacrycarpites australiensis8 Cookson and Pike 1953
Microalatidites paleogenicus8 Mildenhall and Pocknall 1989
Dacrycarpus microfolius n. sp.8 Jordan et al. 2011
Microcachrys novaezelandiae n. sp.4 Carpenter et al. 2011
Dacrydium waimumuensis n. sp.8 Jordan et al. 2011
Dacrydium microphyllum n. sp.8 Jordan et al. 2011
Phyllocladus elongatus n. sp.8 Jordan et al. 2011
Parvisaccites catastus8 Stover and Partridge 1973
Podosporites parvus8 Mildenhall 1978
Podocarpus sp.8 Lheritier and Persoon 1807
Halocarpus highstedii n. sp.8 Jordan et al. 2011
 Pinales - Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae indet.8 Martynov 1820
 Pinales - Araucariaceae
Agathis sp. Salisbury 1807
aff. A. australis
Monocotyledoneae
 Restionales - Commelinidae
Milfordia homeopunctata6 Partridge 1973
Joinvilleaceae/Restionaceae
 Asparagales - Liliidae
Phormium sp.6 Forster and Forster 1775
Asparagaceae
Cycadopsida
 Gnetales -
Equisetosporites notensis6 Romero 1977 cycads
Ephedra, Ephedraceae
Pteridopsida
 Gleicheniales - Matoniaceae
Dictyophyllidites arcuatus6 Pocknall and Mildenhall 1984
 Gleicheniales - Gleicheniaceae
Dicranopteris sp.6 Bernhardi 1805
Gleicheniaceae
Magnoliopsida
  -
Tetracolporites spectabilis6 Pocknall and Mildenhall 1984
Dysoxylum, Meliaceae
Ericipites sp.6 Wodehouse 1933
Ericaceae s.l.
Haloragacidites harrisii6 Mildenhall and Harris 1971
Casuarinaceae
Rhoipites alveolatus6 Couper 1953
[cf.Euphorbia glauca, Euphorbiaceae
 Magnoliales - Chloranthaceae
Clavatipollenites ascarinoides6
Ascarina, Chloranthaceae
 Myrtales -
Myrtaceidites sp.6 Cookson and Pike 1960
Myrtaceae
 Apiales - Araliaceae
cf. Schefflera sp.6 Forster and Forster 1775
Araliaceae
 Ericales - Ericaceae
Ericaceae indet.6 de Jussieu 1789
Cyathodophyllum novaezelandiae n. gen. n. sp.7 Jordan et al. 2010
Richeaphyllum waimumuensis n. sp.7 Jordan et al. 2010
 Rosales - Cunoniaceae
Cunoniaceae indet.6 Brown 1814
 Sapindales - Sapindaceae
cf. Alectryon sp.6 Gaertner 1788
Sapindaceae
 Proteales - Proteaceae
Proteaceae sp.1 de Jussieu 1789
Proteaceae spp.6 de Jussieu 1789
Banksia novaezelandiae n. sp.5 Carpenter et al. 2010
cf. Beauprea sp.1 Brongniart and Gris 1871
Persoonieaephyllum villosum n. sp.3 Carpenter et al. 2010
Persoonieaephyllum ornatum n. gen. n. sp.3 Carpenter et al. 2010
Euproteaciphyllum pinnatum n. sp.1 Carpenter et al. 2012
Euproteaciphyllum amphistomaticum n. sp.1 Carpenter et al. 2012
 Fagales - Nothofagaceae
Nothofagus palustris n. sp.2 Carpenter et al. 2014
 Fagales - Casuarinaceae
Gymnostoma sp.6 Johnson 1980
Casuarinaceae
  -
Tricolpites reticulatus6 Couper 1953
Gunnera