Pipestone Springs (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as Pipestone Main; MV 5810, 5811, 5901, 5902

Where: Jefferson County, Montana (45.9° N, 112.3° W: paleocoordinates 47.7° N, 103.4° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Climbing Arrow Member (Renova Formation), Chadronian (37.2 - 33.9 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; sandy claystone

• According to Douglass 1902: The strata containing the bones are a sandy clay that swells and cracks on weathering and crackles under feet when dry, and a light-gray fine-grained homogeneous material...many angular, glassy fragments, which are undoubtedly volcanic dust

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: surface (float)

Primary reference: A. R. Tabrum, D. R. Prothero, and D. Garcia. 1996. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene transition, southwestern Montana. In D. R. Prothero and R. J. Emry (eds.), The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America 278-311 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 17010: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Jill Wertheim, Jonathan Marcot, Terri Cleary and Clint Boyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• does NOT include Fence Patch MV 6103

•335 rodent specimens just in the CM collection: Black 1965

•following species are from the general area, exact locality unknown: Patriomanis americanus; Hyaenodon crucians -type of "H. minutus"; Hyaenodon microdon type; Hyaenodon montanus - type, actually from Toston contra Mellett 1977; Mesohippus "portentus"; Oreonetes anceps - "?Limnenetes sp." of Matthew 1903, probably not even from Pipestone area; Leptochoerus sp.

•following species are listed by Tabrum and Fields 1980 but not by Tabrum et al.: Agriochoerus maximus = A. sp.?; Paradjidaumo minor = P. trilophus; Korth 1980 "? Cupressimus sp."; Merycoidodon "lewisi"; Didelphidectes "pumilis" = "pumilus" type is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001 from the Main Pocket list and presumably has poor provenance

•"Centetodon magnus" is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001

•"Eutypomys parvus" apparently not present, symbol in table seems to refer to Little Pocket (see) and taxon is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001

•"Zemiodontomys burkei" type is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Montanamus bjorki" type (see Ostrander 1983b) is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Pipestoneomys bisulcatus" type is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

"Daphoenictis sp." is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Parictis montanus" type, see Clark andGuensburg 1972; omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Dinictis sp." (agrees with Bryant 1996) is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Leptochoerus sp." is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

•"Agriochoerus sp." is omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001, presumably has poor provenance

Reptilia
 Testudines -
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines2
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines2 Batsch 1788 turtle
 Squamata - Anguidae
Helodermoides tuberculatus n. gen. n. sp.3 Douglass 1903 squamates
CM 707 (holotype), partial skull and mandible; AMNH 1611, complete left frontal plus partial right frontal, posterior part of right dentary, three dermal scutes, one sacral vertebra, three anterior caudals
Helodermoides tuberculatus9 Douglass 1903 squamates
AMNH Frick collection no. 8729, posterior part of right frontal
cf. Helodermoides tuberculatus9 Douglass 1903 squamates
AMNH 2189, two body osteoderms; USNM 13805, basicranium
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Aplodontidae
Prosciurus vetustus n. sp. Matthew 1903 mountain beaver
see Matthew 1903a
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Douglassciurus jeffersoni n. sp.1 Douglass 1902 squirrel
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Montanamus bjorki n. sp.5 Ostrander 1983 rodent
Namatomys lloydi n. sp. Black 1965 rodent
this is the "true" Namatomys"
Adjidaumo minimus n. sp. Matthew 1903 rodent
see Matthew 1903a
Aulolithomys bounites n. sp. Black 1965 rodent
 Rodentia - Heliscomyidae
Heliscomys ostranderi Korth et al. 1991 rodent
see Korth et al. 1991: "H. vetus" of earlier lists
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Ischyromys sp. Leidy 1856 rodent
said to be new
Ischyromys veterior n. sp. Matthew 1903 rodent
see Matthew 1903a
 Rodentia - Cylindrodontidae
Pseudocylindrodon neglectus n. sp. Burke 1935 rodent
Cylindrodon fontis n. gen. n. sp. Douglass 1902 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Chadrolagus emryi Gawne 1978 rabbit
Palaeolagus temnodon n. sp. Douglass 1902 rabbit
Megalagus brachyodon n. sp. Matthew 1903 rabbit
see Matthew 1903a
 Lipotyphla - Geolabididae
Centetodon kuenzii n. sp. Lillegraven et al. 1981 placental
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
Brontotheriidae indet. Marsh 1873 brontothere
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
Hyracodon sp.2 Leidy 1856 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet. Gray 1821 rhinoceros
Subhyracodon mitis7 Cope 1875 rhinoceros
Trigonias osborni7 Lucas 1900 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Colodon cf. kayi Hough 1955 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Miohippus grandis, "Mesohippus montanensis n. sp." = Mesohippus westoni11
Miohippus grandis Clark and Beerbower 1967 anchitheriine horse
"Mesohippus montanensis n. sp." = Mesohippus westoni11 Cope 1889 anchitheriine horse
see Osborn 1904; "M. westoni"
 Tribosphenida - Heterosoricidae
Domnina thompsoni n. sp. Simpson 1941 placental
 Tribosphenida - Proscalopidae
? Oligoscalops sp. Reed 1961 placental
said to be new
Cryptoryctes kayi n. gen. n. sp.8 Reed 1954 placental
 Tribosphenida - Apternodontidae
Oligoryctes altitalonidus Clark 1936 placental
Oligoryctes cameronensis Hough 1956 placental
Apternodus mediaevus n. sp. Matthew 1903 placental
see Matthew 1903a
 Tribosphenida - Micropternodontidae
Micropternodus borealis n. sp. Matthew 1903 placental
see Matthew 1903a
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Brachyrhynchocyon dodgei Scott 1898 bear-dog
Brachyrhynchocyon montanus n. sp.4 Hunt 1996 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelavus priscus Clark 1936 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Hesperocyon gregarius1 Cope 1873 canid
 Carnivora -
Palaeogale sectoria1 Gervais 1848 carnivoran
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Merycoidodontidae indet. Cook 1912 oreodont
"Merycoidodon" originally described as "M. forsythae" by Schultz and Falkenbach 1968, which has been transferred to Miniochoerus; however, material has not been re-examined according to Stevens and Stevens 1996
Bathygenys alpha n. sp. Douglass 1902 oreodont
 Ungulata - Leptochoeridae
Stibarus montanus n. sp. Matthew 1903 even-toed ungulate
see Matthew 1903a
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Poebrotherium wilsoni6 Leidy 1847 camel
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
Trigenicus profectus1 Matthew 1903 protoceratid
 Ungulata - Leptomerycidae
Leptomeryx sp. Leidy 1853 ruminant
three forms, including "I" and "M"; these are omitted by Tabrum et al. 2001
Leptomeryx mammifer Cope 1885 ruminant
confirmed by Heaton and Emry 1996
Leptomeryx speciosus Lambe 1908 ruminant
confirmed by Heaton and Emry 1996
Pipestoneia douglassi n. gen. n. sp.10 Tabrum and Métais 2007 ruminant
includes "?Eotylopus new sp." of Tabrum and Fields 1980
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Herpetotherium valens Lambe 1908 marsupial
includes type of "Peratherium donahoei"
"Herpetotherium fugax" = Peratherium fugax Cope 1873 marsupial
Copedelphys titanelix n. sp. Matthew 1903 marsupial
see Matthew 1903a