Cottonwood Pass (Lower Nodular Zone) (Oligocene of the United States)

Also known as Collections VII, VIII, and IX; Near Stream Facies

Where: Shannon County, South Dakota (43.3° N, 102.5° W: paleocoordinates 44.4° N, 94.3° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Scenic Member (Brule Formation), Orellan (33.9 - 33.3 Ma)

• Lower Nodular Zone

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: J. Damuth. 1982. Analysis of the Preservation of Community Structure in Assemblages of Fossil Mammals. Paleobiology 8(4):434-446 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Ju]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 17094: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.10.1995, edited by Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Damuth collection is entirely from an area of less than 1 square mile "in the upper half of the stratigraphic section": Clark and Kietzke 1967; NISP 481
possibly relevant: Parictis sp. Hunt 1998a: "Scenic Member... Cottonwood Pass area, Washabaugh County"
"Paratylopus sp." is omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967 and of uncertain status in any case
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Stylemys sp.3 Leidy 1851 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Graptemys sp.3 Agassiz 1857 map turtle
Aves
 Cariamae - Bathornithidae
Bathornis sp.3 Wetmore 1927 bird
Reptilia
 Squamata -
Peltosaurus sp.3 Cope 1872 squamates
 Squamata - Rhineuridae
Rhineura sp.3 Cope 1861 worm lizard
Mammalia
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
Leptictidae indet.3 Gill 1872 eutherian
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Eumys elegans Leidy 1856 mouse
 Rodentia - Aplodontidae
"Prosciurus relictus" = Altasciurus relictus
"Prosciurus relictus" = Altasciurus relictus Cope 1873 mountain beaver
omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Paradjidaumo trilophus Cope 1873 rodent
omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967
Adjidaumo minutus Cope 1873 rodent
 Rodentia - Eutypomyidae
Eutypomys thomsoni Matthew 1905 rodent
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Ischyromys typus Leidy 1856 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Palaeolagus haydeni Leidy 1856 rabbit
Megalagus turgidus Cope 1873 rabbit
omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
Hyracodon nebraskensis Leidy 1850 odd-toed ungulate
see also Prothero 1996e
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Subhyracodon sp. Wood 1927 rhinoceros
includes "Caenopus sp."; Damuth indicates there are two size classes
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Colodon occidentalis1 Leidy 1868 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Mesohippus bairdi1 Leidy 1850 anchitheriine horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Parictis cf. dakotensis2 Clark 1936 bear
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Daphoenus sp.3 Leidy 1853 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Canidae
Hesperocyon gregarius7 Cope 1873 canid
 Carnivora - Nimravidae
Dinictis sp.3 Leidy 1854 false sabre-tooth
Hoplophoneus sp.3 Cope 1874 false sabre-tooth
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Miniochoerus affinis5 Leidy 1869 oreodont
includes their "M. battlecreekensis"; "Cottonwood Pass area" Shannon Co., Brule Zone A
Miniochoerus gracilis Leidy 1851 oreodont
"Merycoidodon culbertsoni" = Merycoidodon (Merycoidodon) culbertsoni Leidy 1848 oreodont
additional specimens of Schultz and Falkenbach 1968 are from 1/2 mi N, 1 mi N, 1 1/2 mi N, N side, S side, 1 mi S, 1 1/2 mi S, and 1 mi E of Cottonwood Pass; also their "M. culbertsoni osborni" from 1 mi E of Cottonwood Pass; "Paramerycoidodon georgei" type from "1 1/2 mi. S of Cottonwood Pass"; also "1 mi. N."; "1-1 1/2 mi. S." of Cottonwood Pass; "Genetochoerus periculorum" from "Cottonwood Creek" (PU specimen); "1 mi. N." and "1 1/2 mi. S." of Cottonwood Pass; all Brule Zone A
"Paramerycoidodon georgei n. sp." = Merycoidodon (Merycoidodon) culbertsoni6 Leidy 1848 oreodont
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Perchoerus nanus4 Marsh 1894 peccary
 Ungulata - Leptochoeridae
Stibarus obtusilobus Cope 1873 even-toed ungulate
omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967
Leptochoerus sp. Leidy 1856 even-toed ungulate
omitted by Clark and Kietzke 1967
 Ungulata - Entelodontidae
Archaeotherium mortoni Leidy 1850 even-toed ungulate
Archaeotherium marshi1 Troxell 1920 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Poebrotherium wilsoni Leidy 1847 camel
includes "P. andersoni" of Sinclair 1924 from "lower concretionary zone in the west part of the Indian Creek basin, near the pass into Little Corral Draw, Washington County" - i.e., Cottonwood Pass; and F:AM specimens of Prothero 1996d
 Ungulata - Agriochoeridae
Agriochoerus antiquus Leidy 1850 agriochoerid
 Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
"Bothriodon rostratus" = Aepinacodon rostratus, Heptacodon occidentale1
"Bothriodon rostratus" = Aepinacodon rostratus Scott 1894 anthracothere
Heptacodon occidentale1 Osborn and Wortman 1894 anthracothere
 Ungulata - Hypertragulidae
Hypertragulus calcaratus Cope 1873 ruminant
 Ungulata - Leptomerycidae
Leptomeryx evansi Leidy 1853 ruminant
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Hyaenodon sp.3 Laizer and Parieu 1838 eutherian
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Amphibia
  -
Amphibia indet.3 tetrapod