Indian Stronghold (Leptauchenia Beds) (Oligocene of the United States)

Where: Shannon County, South Dakota (43.3° N, 102.5° W: paleocoordinates 44.3° N, 95.0° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Poleslide Member (Brule Formation), Whitneyan (33.3 - 30.8 Ma)

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Primary reference: H. F. Osborn and J. L. Wortman. 1894. Fossil mammals of the Lower Miocene White River beds. Collection of 1892. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 6(7):199-228 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Carrano]more details

PaleoDB collection 17343: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.10.1995

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• list of 1892 AMNH collection is used as it appears to be from above the Protoceras locality in Big Corral Draw
Wang 1994 reports this as Washington Co., but Patton and Taylor 1973 report that Washington Co. was combined with Shannon Co. in 1943
level unclear: Paraenhydrocyon josephi Wang 1994: SW of Indian Stronghold, Brule Fm., "Whitneyan" Daphoenus sp. Hunt 1998b: "Brule Formation, NE of Indian Stronghold"; "Brule Formation, Big Corral Draw"
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
Hyracodon sp. Leidy 1856 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Diceratherium tridactylum1 Osborn 1893 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Miohippus obliquidens1 Osborn 1904 anchitheriine horse
 Carnivora - Canidae
Cynodesmus thooides4 Scott 1893 canid
NE of Indian Stronghold, "just above Protoceras channels"; also SW of Indian Stronghold on Cuny Table, "upper part of lower Leptauchenia nodules below the Protoceras channels"
 Carnivora - Nimravidae
Nimravidae indet.1 Cope 1880 false sabre-tooth
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Leptauchenia major3 Leidy 1856 oreodont
Leptauchenia decora3 Leidy 1856 oreodont
"Cottonwood Creek"; "3/4-1 1/4 mi. S. of Cottonwood Pass"; "head of E. fork of Big Corral Draw"; "between heads of Big Corral Draw and Cottonwood Creek"; Corral Draw"; all Brule Zone D; "L. sp."
Miniochoerus starkensis2 Schultz and Falkenbach 1956 oreodont
"Merycoidodon major" = Merycoidodon (Otarohyus) major1 Leidy 1853 oreodont
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
? Hyaenodon sp. Laizer and Parieu 1838 eutherian