Indian Stronghold (Protoceras Channel) (Oligocene of the United States)

Where: Shannon County, South Dakota (43.3° N, 102.5° W: paleocoordinates 44.3° N, 95.0° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Poleslide Member (Brule Formation), Whitneyan (33.3 - 30.8 Ma)

Environment/lithology: fluvial; poorly lithified, coarse-grained sandstone

• "coarse stream-transported" sandstone that is collected in "blocks" (Sinclair 1925)

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the AMNH

• AMNH and Princeton University collections

Primary reference: H. F. Osborn and J. L. Wortman. 1894. Fossil mammals of the Lower Miocene White River beds. Collection of 1892. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 6(7):199-228 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 17344: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.10.1995, edited by Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• because Big Corral Draw "is the primary set of outcrops worked by the early collectors" of Protoceras beds material (Patton and Taylor 1973), AMNH Protoceras Beds collection of 1892 is included here; this is referred to as "the Cheyenne River locality" in early publications
"Mesohippus bairdi" no specimens described, omitted by Osborn and Wortman 1895

"Mesohippus copei" Osborn and Wortman 1895: type, "Protoceras layer of the Cheyenne River locality"; apparently a nomen dubium based on discussion of Osborn 1904
Aves
 Cariamae - Bathornithidae
Paracrax gigantea2 Cracraft 1968 bird
"from middle Protoceras channels, about 175 feet above the base of the Poleslide member... between West Fork of Big Corral Draw and Cottonwood Creek... collected in 1940 by M. F. Skinner, R. L. Mefferd, and associates"
Paracrax wetmorei n. sp.2 Cracraft 1968 bird
"from one of the lowest Protoceras channels, about 100 feet above the base of the Poleslide member... northeast of Indian Stronghold on the divide between west Big Corral Draw and Cottonwood Creek... collected in1938 by M. F. Skinner, R. L. Mefferd, and associates"
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
"Hyracodon nebrascensis" = Hyracodon nebraskensis, Hyracodon leidyanus6
"Hyracodon nebrascensis" = Hyracodon nebraskensis Leidy 1850 odd-toed ungulate
from the "Brown nodule layer" above the Protoceras sandstones, Corral Draw; presumably "H. sp." of Osborn and Wortman 1894
Hyracodon leidyanus6 Troxell 1921 odd-toed ungulate
Princeton specimens, including his type of "H. apertus"; all from "Brown nodule layer above Protoceras sandstones, Corral Draw"
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
"Aceratherium tridactylum n. sp." = Diceratherium tridactylum, "Aceratherium platycephalum n. sp." = Amphicaenopus platycephalus
"Aceratherium tridactylum n. sp." = Diceratherium tridactylum Osborn 1893 rhinoceros
described by Osborn 1893; includes "Diceratherium proavitum"
"Aceratherium platycephalum n. sp." = Amphicaenopus platycephalus Osborn and Wortman 1894 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Protapirus obliquidens n. sp.9 Wortman and Earle 1893 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Miohippus crassicuspis n. sp." = Miohippus annectens, "Miohippus gidleyi n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi4, "Mesohippus grallipes n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi7, "Mesohippus validus n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi4, "Mesohippus intermedius n. sp." = Miohippus intermedius
"Miohippus crassicuspis n. sp." = Miohippus annectens Marsh 1874 anchitheriine horse
"Protoceras Beds" specimen number places this with 1892 collection
"Miohippus gidleyi n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi4 Osborn 1904 anchitheriine horse
"Mesohippus grallipes n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi7 Osborn 1904 anchitheriine horse
"Protoceras beds... drainage basin of Cottonwood Creek": collected by J. B. Hatcher and J. A. Murray in 1893
"Mesohippus validus n. sp." = Miohippus gidleyi4 Osborn 1904 anchitheriine horse
AMNH type and PU referred specimen from "Protoceras beds... drainage basin of Cottonwood Creek"; specimen number of "M. validus" type shows that it belongs to 1892 collection
"Mesohippus intermedius n. sp." = Miohippus intermedius Osborn and Wortman 1895 anchitheriine horse
from "Protoceras layer of White River" referred specimens from "both the White and Cheyenne River localities"; referred specimen of Osborn 1904 is just two numbers before an AMNH Protoceras specimen listed by Patton and Taylor 1973
 Carnivora - Canidae
Hesperocyon gregarius8 Cope 1873 canid
NE of Indian Stronghold in Protoceras channel
"Mesocyon" temnodon8 Wortman and Matthew 1899 canid
NE of Indian Stronghold, Protoceras channel
 Carnivora - Nimravidae
Nimravidae indet.1 Cope 1880 false sabre-tooth
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet.1 Palmer 1897 peccary
 Ungulata - Entelodontidae
Entelodontidae indet.5 Lydekker 1883 even-toed ungulate
small; "Protoceras beds on Cottonwood Creek in what is now Washington County"
Scaptohyus altidens n. sp. Sinclair 1922 even-toed ungulate
from "Protoceras beds in Corral Draw"; collected in 1893; presumably includes "Elotherium imperator"
 Ungulata - Agriochoeridae
Agriochoerus gaudryi n. sp. Osborn and Wortman 1893 agriochoerid
described as "Artionyx" gaudryi by Osborn and Wortman 1893; definitely from main Protoceras locality
 Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
"Hyopotamus brachyrhynchus n. sp." = Elomeryx armatus, "Anthracotherium karense n. sp." = Heptacodon curtus
"Hyopotamus brachyrhynchus n. sp." = Elomeryx armatus Marsh 1894 anthracothere
"Anthracotherium karense n. sp." = Heptacodon curtus Marsh 1894 anthracothere
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
Protoceras celer Marsh 1891 protoceratid
see Patton and Taylor 1973: type, including types of "P. comptus"; "P. nasutus"; "Calops consors"; and "C. cristatus"; all from head of Big Corral Draw, NE of Indian Stronghold on the NE side of Cuny Table, Shannon Co.
 Ungulata - Hypertragulidae
Hypertragulus dakotensis n. sp.3 Frick 1937 ruminant
"From Protoceras Beds, Big Badlands, South Dakota, 1892"