Cerro Observatorio (Miocene of Argentina)

Also known as Monte Observación of Ameghino

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.6° S, 69.1° W: paleocoordinates 51.2° S, 63.4° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Santacrucian (17.5 - 16.3 Ma)

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: mesofossils

Primary reference: S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, and M. S. Bargo. 2012. Background for a paleoecological study of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) on the Atlantic Coast of Patagonia. In S. F. Vizcaí­no, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 1-22 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 176570: authorized by Jelle Zijlstra, entered by Jelle Zijlstra on 17.02.2016

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
"Colubridae" indet.5 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
MACN-PV SC3315-9, incomplete trunk vertebrae
Mammalia
  -
Mammalia indet.10 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
MACN-A 7781, distal humerus, labeled as "Plagiocoelus? latus". According to McDonald et al. (2008), "It appears that this species was never formally described. The specimen cannot be assigned to Plagiocoelus and is probably not a vermilinguan."
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6, "Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6, "Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5969, left mandible with ascending ramus and partial condyle with m2 and alveolus for m3; MACN-A 10403, dentary m1-2; MACN SC 1149, m2? (Stake 147); 274, M3; 275, C; 332, incisor (Stake 22); 334, M2 (Stake 13); 335, C (Stake 2); 336, dentary m1-2 (Stake 28); 337, M2 (Stake 19); 338, m1 (Stake 69); 339, dentary m1-2 (Stake 69); 341, m1 (Stake 29); 402, c (Stake 110); 2916, P3 (Stake 206); 2918, m2 (Stake 206); 3026, p4 (Stake 7); 3089, I1; 3090, m2?; 3112, M2 (Stake 19); 3114, i1 (Stake 19); 3200, m2; 3116, p2 (Stake 25); 342, M2 (Stake 54)
"Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 8648, right dp4
"Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5966, left mandibular fragment with m2, type
  -
Plagiocoelus obliquus n. gen. n. sp.10
Plagiocoelus obliquus n. gen. n. sp.10 Ameghino 1894 mammal
MACN-A 7780, distal humerus
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Adinotherium sp.4 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Acaremys murinus2 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN PV SC1694, SC1831
Acaremys tricarinatus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1894 caviomorph
MACN A 4113, holotype
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
"Proeutatus carinatus" = Eutatus carinatus12 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 8041–8042, carapace fragment and osteoderms
"Proeutatus deleo" = Eutatus deleo12 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 4800–4802, mandible, osteoderms, molariform
Stenotatus hesternus12 armadillo
MACN-A 4873, carapace and bone fragments
Stenotatus patagonicus12 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-A 4874–4875, mandible and osteoderms; MACN-A 7801–7802, fragment of mandible and osteoderms
Stenotatus cf. patagonicus12 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-Pv Sc406, skull, postcrania
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus ferox12 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 4901, skull
Anantiosodon rarus12 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 5119, mandible
 Xenarthra -
Adiastaltus procerus n. sp.10, Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.10
Adiastaltus procerus n. sp.10 Ameghino 1894 edentate
MACN A-7779, distal humerus
Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.10 Ameghino 1894 edentate
"Type = MACN A-7782 distal right humerus (pathological), A-7783 lumbar (missing)"
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Hapalops sp.3 Ameghino 1887 edentate
YPM-VPPU 15836, postcrania
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
"Eucinepeltus petesatus" = Encinepeltus petesatus12
"Eucinepeltus petesatus" = Encinepeltus petesatus12 Ameghino 1891 glyptodon
MACN-A 4758, skull; 4760, mandible; 4761, mandible
 Ungulata - Macraucheniidae
Theosodon lydekkeri4 Ameghino 1887 eutherian
MACN-A 2545–57, tibia; 9252–53, tibia
 Ungulata - Proterotheriidae
Thoatherium minusculum4 Ameghino 1887 eutherian
MACN-A 2958, mandible
Diadiaphorus majusculus4 Ameghino 1887 eutherian
MACN-A 9137, cranium
"Anisolophus australis" = Proterotherium australe4 Burmeister 1879 eutherian
MACN-A 2832, tibia
 Sparassodonta -
"Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus8, "Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica8, "Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8, "Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8, "Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8, Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.8, Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.8, "Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta8, "Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8, "Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8, "Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8, "Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8
"Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus8 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 666, right dentary, holotype
"Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 639, C; MACN 640, C; MACN 641, maxillary M1; MACN 673, dentary c-m4; MACN 674, dentary p3-m4; MACN 675a, dentary right m1-2, left m1-3; MACN 690, maxillary P3; MACN 9350, mailla P2-M4; MACN 9351, mandible m2-3
"Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 671, dentary m2-4; MACN 672, dentary m2-4 (same individual, both form the holotype)
"Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 664, dentary p2, m2-3
"Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 689, dentary p1-3
Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 646, dentary p3, m3; MACN 669, dentary p2, holotype
Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.8 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN-A 684, dentary m1-4, holotype
"Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta8 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 686, dentary m1-2, m4; 687, dentary fragment; both are one individual
"Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 667, dentary c-p2; MACN 668, dentary m1-3; MACN 6286, dentary p2-3; MACN 647, mandible p2-m2, holotype; MACN 688, maxilla P1; MACN 704, maxilla M2-3
"Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 683, dentary m1-2
"Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 682, dentary m1-3
"Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 685, partial M2
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus7, "Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus7, Borhyaena tuberata11
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus7 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 670, M2
"Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus7 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 649, canine, lectotype
Borhyaena tuberata11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
"Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9, "Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum9, "Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum9, "Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum9, "Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9, "Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9, "Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9
"Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5724, dentary p3; 5726, dentary p3; 5730, dentary p3-m1, m3-4; 5731, dentary m1, m3; 5733, dentary p2-m3; 5734, dentary c-p3; (coll. 1890-91); 8477, dentary p2-m2; 8478, dentary m2 (coll. 1891-92); 8475, dentary p3-m4; 8476, dentary p1-3, m1 talonid; 8506, dentary p1-m4; 8507, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1892-93); and types of synonyms
"Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5741, dentary
"Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5716, dentary m1-2
"Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5738, dentary p3
"Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5725, dentary p1-m1
"Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5732, dentary p1-m4
"Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5739, dentary p2-3
"Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5729, dentary p1-m4
"Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5721, dentary m2-3 (syntype of _Halmarhiphus nanus_); MACN 5704, dentary m3-4 (?syntype of _Garzonia annectens_)
"Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5728, dentary m2-4, lectotype
"Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5740, dentary p2-m1, type
"Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5735, dentary c-m1, type; MACN 5727, dentary p3-m4, syntype (but not lectotype) of _Stylognathus diprotodontoides_
"Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5737, dentary c, type
"Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula9 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5736, dentary p1-3, type
 Paucituberculata - Palaeothentidae
Acdestis lemairei1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
"Acdestis owenii" = Acdestis oweni1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes aratae1 Moreno 1882 marsupial
Palaeothentes pascuali1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
Palaeothentes intermedius1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes minutus1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes lemoinei1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
 Paucituberculata - Pichipilidae
Phonocdromus gracilis9 Ameghino 1894 marsupial
MACN 5722, dentary p3
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 5542, dentary m1-4; MACN-A 2037, dentary p3-m4
 Paucituberculata - Caenolestidae
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile9, "Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9, "Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9, "Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9, "Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9, "Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5701, dentary p2, m1-3; 5702, dentary p1-2, m1-2; 5710, dentary m1-3; 5723, dentary p2-3, parts of m1-2 (coll. 1890-91); 8456, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1891-92)
"Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5700, dentary p2-3, m1-2
"Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5720, dentary m2-3
"Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5698, dentary m3
"Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5703, dentary m1-4
"Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5709, dentary m2-4