Suwannee Springs Roadcut (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Hamilton County County, Florida (29.9° N, 82.9° W: paleocoordinates 30.2° N, 79.2° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Marks Head Formation, Hemingfordian (20.4 - 16.0 Ma)

• "This site is approximately 16–17 million years old based largely on the presence of the horse Merychippus gunteri Simpson 1930 (Richard C. Hulbert, Jr., personal


Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

• "The kinosternid layer was thin, two to three inches thick, and contained phosphate pebbles along with fragmented bone. The matrix below the kinosternid layer was a green clay that was considered to be ‘Hawthorn’ in the original usage of the term."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by J. Waldrop in 1973; reposited in the FLMNH

Primary reference: J. R. Bourque. 2013. Fossil Kinosternidae from the Oligocene and Miocene of Florida, USA. In D. B. Brinkman, P. A. Holroyd, and J. Gardner (eds.), Morphology and Evolution of Turtles, Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology 459-475 [P. Holroyd/P. Holroyd]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 176936: authorized by Patricia Holroyd, entered by Patricia Holroyd on 08.03.2016

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon sp. von Spix 1824 mud turtle
new species
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
two species
 Testudines -
Pleurodira indet. sideneck turtle
 Testudines - Podocnemidae
"Podocnemididae indet." = Podocnemidae
"Podocnemididae indet." = Podocnemidae Cope 1868 sideneck turtle
 Crocodylia -
cf. Gavialosuchus sp. Toula and Kail 1885 crocodilian
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligatoridae indet. Gray 1844 crocodilian
"similar in size to Alligator olseni"
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Merychippus gunteri Simpson 1930 horse