Toledo Bend (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Newton County, Texas (31.0° N, 93.4° W: paleocoordinates 31.6° N, 88.9° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: upper Carnahan Bayou Member (Fleming Formation), Aquitanian (23.0 - 20.4 Ma)

Environment/lithology: coarse channel fill; conglomerate

• conglomerate likely from episode of violent flood mixing (Albright, 1999)
• Paleochannel conglomerate (Albright, 1999)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, surface (float), sieve,

Primary reference: L. B. Albright. 1991. The vertebrate paleontology, taphonomy, and paleoecology of a new early Miocene site in the Fleming Formation near Toledo Bend Dam. Newton County, Texas, and its importance to Gulf Coastal Plain biostratigraphy 1-319 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 18663: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• preliminary and highly inaccurate list published by Manning 1990
small mammals described by Albright 1996
"approximately 700 elements referred to mammals": Albright 1998b
Actinopteri
 Acanthomorphata - Centropomidae
? Centropomus sp.1 Lacépède 1802
 Centrarchiformes - Centrarchidae
Micropterus sp.1 Lacépède 1802 black bass
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Ictalurus ? punctatus1 Rafinesque 1818 catfish
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp.1 Agassiz 1843 gar
Osteichthyes
 Caudata -
Caudata indet.8 salamander
 Proteida - Batrachosauroididae
Batrachosauroides sp.1 Taylor and Hesse 1943 salamander
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychini indet.1 Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Dermatemys sp.1 Gray 1847 Mesoamerican river turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp.1 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emydidae indet.1 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
 Crocodylia -
Gavialosuchus sp.1 Toula and Kail 1885 crocodilian
SUMG V-2247, anterior tooth; V-2517, five teeth
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator olseni1 White 1942 alligator
LSUMG V-2255, tooth; V-2698, approximately 180 teeth; V-2732, figured tooth; V-2733, two premaxillary fragments; V-2734, six maxillae fragments; V-2735, five nasal fragments; V-2736, three frontal fragments; V-2737, two frontoparietal fragments; V-2738, two parietal fragments; V-2739, post orbital fragment; V-2740, three squamosal fragments; V-2741, left posterior quadrate; V-2742, quadrate fragment; V-2743, quadrate-quadratojugal fragment; V-2744, quadratojugal fragment; V-2745, jugal fragment; V-2746, seven anterior dentary fragments; V-2747, figured right anterior dentary fragment; V-2748, articular fragment; V-2749, 22 lower jaw fragments; V-2750, vertebrae and vertebrae fragments; V-2751, femur; V-2752, five femur fragments; V-2753, proximal right humerus; V-2754, distal humerus; V-2755, proximal right tibia; V-2756, limb bone fragments; V-2757, three metapodials; V-2758, proximal phalanx; V-2759, claw fragment; V-2760, 63 dermal scutes; V-2761, two neck scutes; V-2762, six juvenile scutes
 Squamata -
? Peltosaurus sp.1 Cope 1872 squamates
 Squamata - Aniliidae
Anilioides cf. nebraskensis1 Holman 1976 pipe snake
 Squamata - Boidae
"Erycinae indet." = Erycidae1
"Erycinae indet." = Erycidae1 Bonaparte 1825 sand boa
Mammalia
 Rodentia -
Texomys sp. Slaughter 1981 rodent
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
? Protospermophilus sp. Gazin 1930 squirrel
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Eomyidae indet. Winge 1887 rodent
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Proheteromys toledoensis n. sp.2 Albright 1996 rodent
Proheteromys sabinensis n. sp.2 Albright 1996 rodent
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Neatocastor hesperus2 Douglass 1902 beaver
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Moropus cf. oregonensis6 Leidy 1873 chalicothere
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Diceratherium armatum Marsh 1875 rhinoceros
Diceratherium annectens Marsh 1873 rhinoceros
Gulfoceras westfalli n. sp.4 Albright 1999 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Nexuotapirus marslandensis5 Schoch 1984 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Anchippus texanus" = Desmatippus texanus, Miohippus sp.
"Anchippus texanus" = Desmatippus texanus Leidy 1868 anchitheriine horse
Miohippus sp. Marsh 1874 anchitheriine horse
possibly, but probably not Archaeohippus blackbergi instead: Albright 1998b
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Daphoenodon notionastes Frailey 1979 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
Mustelidae indet.7 Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
"? Cynorca sociale" = Marshochoerus socialis Marsh 1875 peccary
? Floridachoerus olseni4 White 1941 peccary
? Hesperhys sp.3 Douglass 1903 peccary
not the same as "H. cf. pinensis"
 Ungulata - Entelodontidae
Dinohyus sp.5 Peterson 1905 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Nothokemas sp.4 White 1947 camel
 Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
Arretotherium acridens Douglass 1902 anthracothere
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
? Prosynthetoceras texanus Hay 1924 protoceratid
Prosynthetoceras orthrionanus n. sp.4 Albright 1999 protoceratid
 Ungulata - Hypertragulidae
Nanotragulus sp.3 Lull 1922 ruminant
 Insectivora -
Insectivora indet. Bowdich 1821 insectivoran