Toros-Menalla (TM 90) (Miocene of Chad)

Where: Chad (16.2° N, 17.5° E: paleocoordinates 16.0° N, 17.1° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Messinian (7.2 - 5.3 Ma)

• 5.2-7.4 Ma

•all terrestrial vertebrates are from "the middle part of the section (about 2m thick... informally named the anthracotheriid unit (AU)"

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; poorly lithified sandstone

• poorly cemented sandstone

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

Primary reference: A. Louchart, Y. Haile-Selassie, P. Vignaud, A. Likius, and M. Brunet. 2008. Fossil birds from the Late Miocene of Chad and Ethiopia and zooge- ographical implications. Oryctos 7:147-167 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 192292: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 21.03.2018

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Gruiformes - Heliornithidae
"Heliopais cf. personata" = Heliopais personatus
"Heliopais cf. personata" = Heliopais personatus Gray 1849 masked finfoot
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallidae indet. Vigors 1825 rail
or Heliornithidae indet.
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardea sp. Linnaeus 1758 heron
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
cf. Mycteria sp. Linnaeus 1758 stork
or Ciconia sp.
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Anhinga sp. Brisson 1760 darter
Anhinga cf. melanogaster Pennant 1769 oriental darter