Cumberland Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Allegany County, Maryland (39.6° N, 78.7° W: paleocoordinates 39.6° N, 78.5° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Irvingtonian (1.8 - 0.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: J. W. Gidley. 1913. Preliminary report on a recently discovered Pleistocene cave deposit near Cumberland, Maryland. Proceedings of The United States National Museum 46:93-102 [M. Uhen/M. Shalap/M. Shalap]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 20302: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Mark Uhen and Margaret Shalap

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• updates Gidley and Gazin 1938
unclassified
  -
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana pipiens13 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla crucifer13 tree frog
Pseudacris triseriata13 Wied 1838 western chorus frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo woodhousei13 Girard 1854 Woodhouse's toad
Bufo americanus13 Holbrook 1836 American toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Cryptobranchus guildayi n. sp.13 Holman 1977 hellbender
Notophthalmus cf. viridescens13 Rafinesque 1820 Eastern newt
"Ambystoma opacum" = Amblystoma13 mole salamander
Ambystoma tigrinum13 Green 1825 tiger salamander
"Ambystoma maculatum" = Amblystoma maculatum13 Shaw 1802 mole salamander
Plethodon gultinosus13 woodland salamander
Gyrinophilus cf. porphyriticus13 Green 1827 lungless salamander
Reptilia
 Testudines - Panemydidae
"Clemmys muhlenbergi" = Glyptemys muhlenbergii13 Schoepff 1801 bog turtle
Terrapene carolina13 Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
Chrysemys picta13 Schneider 1783 painted turtle
Aves
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris gallopavo2 Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
Bonasa umbellus2 Linnaeus 1766 ruffed grouse
Bonasa umbellus20 Linnaeus 1766 ruffed grouse
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anas crecca2 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Otus guildayi n. sp.2
Otus guildayi n. sp.2 Brodkorb and Mourer-Chauvire 1984 scops owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Ectopistes migratorius2 Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Perisoreus canadensis2 Linnaeus 1766 Canada jay
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Aquila chrysaetos2 Linnaeus 1758 golden eagle
Reptilia
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet.7 crocodilian
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus cf. undulatus13 Bosc 1802 eastern fence lizard
 Squamata - Viperidae
Crotalus horridus13 Linnaeus 1758 timber rattlesnake
 Squamata -
Serpentes indet.7 Stirton 1953 snake
 Squamata - Colubridae
Diadophis punctatus13 Linnaeus ringneck snake
Carphophis amoenus13 Say worm snake
Heterodon cf. platyrhinos13 Latreille 1801 eastern hognosed snake
Elaphe vulpina13 Baird and Girard 1853 fox snake
Opheodrys vernalis13 colubrid snake
Coluber constrictor13 Linnaeus 1758 black racer
Lampropeltis triangulum13 Lacépède 1788 milk snake
Thamnophis sp.13 Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
"Natrix sipedon" = Nerodia sipedon13 Linnaeus 1758 northern water snake
 Squamata - Scincidae
Eumeces cf. fasciatus13 Linnaeus 1758 five-lined skink
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma sp., "Parahodomys spelaeus n. gen. n. sp." = Neotoma spelaea7, "Neotoma spelaea" = Neotoma spelaea8, "Neotoma magister" = Neotoma floridana8, Lasiopodomys deceitensis19, Ondatra annectens9, Synaptomys sp., Synaptomys cooperi8, Phenacomys sp.9, "Clethrionomys sp." = Myodes11, Clethrionomys cf. gapperi9, Microtus sp., "Allophaiomys guildayi" = Microtus guildayi16, "Microtus cf. involutus" = Microtus guildayi7, Microtus cf. chrotorrhinus, Pitymys cumberlandensis16, Atopomys texensis1, Neofiber sp.9, "Synaptomys (Myctomys) cf. borealis" = Synaptomys (Mictomys) borealis, "Mictomys borealis" = Synaptomys (Mictomys) borealis3, Peromyscus cumberlandensis9, Peromyscus cf. leucopus11
Neotoma sp. Say and Ord 1825 pack rat
"Parahodomys spelaeus n. gen. n. sp." = Neotoma spelaea7 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pack rat
"Neotoma spelaea" = Neotoma spelaea8 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pack rat
"Neotoma magister" = Neotoma floridana8 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Lasiopodomys deceitensis19 Guthrie and Matthews 1971 vole
Ondatra annectens9 Brown 1908 muskrat
Synaptomys sp. Baird 1858 vole
Synaptomys cooperi8 Baird 1858 southern bog lemming
confirmed by Repenning 1992; not clear what "S. borealis" and "Dicrostonyx hudsonius" of Guilday are
Phenacomys sp.9 Merriam 1889 vole
omitted by Repenning 1992 but repeated by Guilday 1979
"Clethrionomys sp." = Myodes11 Pallas 1811 vole
Clethrionomys cf. gapperi9 Vigors 1830 southern red-backed vole
omitted by Repenning 1992 but repeated by Guilday 1979
Microtus sp. Schrank 1798 vole
"Allophaiomys guildayi" = Microtus guildayi16 van der Meulen 1978 vole
"Microtus cf. involutus" = Microtus guildayi7 van der Meulen 1978 vole
Microtus cf. chrotorrhinus Miller 1894 rock vole
Pitymys cumberlandensis16 van der Meulen 1978 vole
Atopomys texensis1 Patton 1965 mouse
Neofiber sp.9 True 1884 mouse
"Synaptomys (Myctomys) cf. borealis" = Synaptomys (Mictomys) borealis Richardson 1828 northern bog lemming
"Mictomys borealis" = Synaptomys (Mictomys) borealis3 Richardson 1828 northern bog lemming
Peromyscus cumberlandensis9 Guilday and Handley 1967 deer mouse
Peromyscus cf. leucopus11 Rafinesque 1818 white-footed mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
"Citellus cf. tridecemlineatus" = Spermophilus7, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus9, Marmota monax9, Tamias striatus9, Glaucomys sp.7, "Petauristodon sp." = Petauristodon, "Sciuropterus cf. alpinus" = Petauristodon, "Glaucomys volans" = Sciuropterus volans9, "Sciurus hudsonicus" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, "Tamiasciurus hudsonicus" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus8, "Sciurus tenuidens" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus7
"Citellus cf. tridecemlineatus" = Spermophilus7 ground squirrel
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus9 Mitchell 1821 thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Marmota monax9 Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
Tamias striatus9 Linnaeus 1758 eastern chipmunk
Glaucomys sp.7 Thomas 1908 flying squirrel
"Petauristodon sp." = Petauristodon Engesser 1979 squirrel
"Sciuropterus cf. alpinus" = Petauristodon squirrel
"Glaucomys volans" = Sciuropterus volans9 Linnaeus 1758 southern flying squirrel
"Sciurus hudsonicus" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
"Tamiasciurus hudsonicus" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus8 Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
"Sciurus tenuidens" = Tamiasciurus hudsonicus7 Erxleben 1777 American red squirrel
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
"Thomomys potomacensis" = Thomomys potomacensis9, "Plesiothomomys potomacensis n. gen. n. sp." = Thomomys potomacensis7
"Thomomys potomacensis" = Thomomys potomacensis9 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pocket gopher
"Plesiothomomys potomacensis n. gen. n. sp." = Thomomys potomacensis7 Gidley and Gazin 1933 pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor canadensis9 Kuhl 1820 American beaver
Dipoides sp.15 Jaeger 1835 beaver
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon sp. Cuvier 1822 North American porcupine
Erethizon dorsatum4 Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Napaeozapus sp.10 Miller 1900 jumping mouse
Napaeozapus insignis17 Miller 1891 woodland jumping mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
Lepus americanus17 Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
Lepus ? americanus Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotona sp.10 Link 1795 pika
Ochotona cf. princeps Richardson 1828 American pika
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Condylura sp.11 Illinger 1811 star-nosed mole
Condylura cristata9 Linnaeus 1758 star-nosed mole
Parascalops sp.11 True 1894 mole
Parascalops breweri9 Bachman 1842 hairly-tailed vole
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp.9 Brisson 1762 tapir
"Tapirus cf. haysii" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) haysii Leidy 1860 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.8 Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex sp.7 Linnaeus 1758 long-tailed shrew
Sorex cinereus9 Kerr 1792 cinereus shrew
Sorex fumeus9 Miller 1895 smoky shrew
Blarina carolinensis14 Bachman 1837 southern short-tailed shrew
contra Graham and Semken 1976, "B. kirtlandi" is not present
Blarina brevicauda9 Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Vespertilio sp. Linnaeus 1758 vesper bat
Myotis sp.12 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
Myotis cf. grisescens12 Howell 1909 gray bat
"Corynorhinus alleganiensis n. sp." = Plecotus alleganiensis7 Gidley and Gazin 1933 vesper bat
"Plecotus alleganiensis" = Plecotus alleganiensis8 Gidley and Gazin 1933 vesper bat
Pipistrellus sp.11 Kaup 1829 pipistrelle bat
Eptesicus cf. fuscus1 Beauvois 1796 big brown bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
"Ursus (Euarctos) cf. americanus" = Ursus americanus, "Ursus americanus" = Ursus americanus6, "Ursus americanus" = Ursus americanus1, "Euarctos vitabilis" = Ursus americanus7, Tremarctos floridanus9, "Arctodus pristinus" = Arctodus pristinus9, "Arctodus haplodon" = Arctodus pristinus17
"Ursus (Euarctos) cf. americanus" = Ursus americanus Pallas 1780 black bear
"Ursus americanus" = Ursus americanus6 Pallas 1780 black bear
"Ursus americanus" = Ursus americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
"Euarctos vitabilis" = Ursus americanus7 Pallas 1780 black bear
Tremarctos floridanus9 Gidley 1928 Florida cave bear
"Arctodus pristinus" = Arctodus pristinus9 Leidy 1854 bear
"Arctodus haplodon" = Arctodus pristinus17 Leidy 1854 bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
"Spilogale putorius" = Spilogale putorius9, "Spilogale marylandensis" = Spilogale putorius17, "Spilogale marylandensis n. sp." = Spilogale putorius7, Mephitis mephitis9
"Spilogale putorius" = Spilogale putorius9 Linnaeus 1758 eastern spotted skunk
includes type of "S. marylandensis" of Gidley and Gazin 1933
"Spilogale marylandensis" = Spilogale putorius17 Linnaeus 1758 eastern spotted skunk
"Spilogale marylandensis n. sp." = Spilogale putorius7 Linnaeus 1758 eastern spotted skunk
Mephitis mephitis9 Schreber 1776 striped skunk
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Mustela cf. vison" = Neovison vison8, Lontra canadensis8, "Gulo gulo" = Gulo gulo1, "Gulo gidleyi" = Gulo gulo17, "Martes diluviana" = Pekania diluviana8, "Martes parapennanti n. sp." = Pekania diluviana7, Brachyprotoma obtusata1, Taxidea taxus9, "Taxidea marylandica" = Taxidea taxus marylandica17, "Taxidea marylandica n. sp." = Taxidea taxus marylandica7
"Mustela cf. vison" = Neovison vison8 Schreber 1777 mink
Lontra canadensis8 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
"Gulo gulo" = Gulo gulo1 Linnaeus 1758 wolverine
"Gulo gidleyi" = Gulo gulo17 Linnaeus 1758 wolverine
"Martes diluviana" = Pekania diluviana8 Cope 1889 mustelid carnivore
"Martes parapennanti n. sp." = Pekania diluviana7 Cope 1889 mustelid carnivore
Brachyprotoma obtusata1 Cope 1899 short-faced skunk
Taxidea taxus9 Schreber 1778 American badger
"Taxidea marylandica" = Taxidea taxus marylandica17 Gidley and Gazin 1933 American badger
"Taxidea marylandica n. sp." = Taxidea taxus marylandica7 Gidley and Gazin 1933 American badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes sp., Canis sp., Canis armbrusteri n. sp.8, Canis armbrusteri n. sp., Canis latrans18, "Canis cf. priscolatrans" = Canis rufus7
Vulpes sp. Frisch 1775 fox
Canis sp. Linnaeus 1758 canine
Canis armbrusteri n. sp.8 Gidley 1913 canine
Canis armbrusteri n. sp. Gidley 1913 canine
Canis latrans18 Say 1823 coyote
"Canis cf. priscolatrans" = Canis rufus7 Audubon and Bachman 1851 red wolf
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Smilodon californicus" = Smilodon fatalis9, "Felis cf. inexpectata" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus7, "Miracinonyx inexpectatus" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus1, "Panthera augusta" = Panthera onca9, "Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox9, "Felis aff. atrox" = Uncia atrox7
"Smilodon californicus" = Smilodon fatalis9 Leidy 1868 saber-toothed cat
"Felis cf. inexpectata" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus7 Cope 1895 American cheetah
"Miracinonyx inexpectatus" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus1 Cope 1895 American cheetah
"Panthera augusta" = Panthera onca9 Linnaeus 1758 jaguar
"Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox9 Leidy 1853 cat
"Felis aff. atrox" = Uncia atrox7 Leidy 1853 cat
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
Megalonyx sp.9 Harlan 1825 edentate
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum17 Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet., Platygonus sp., Platygonus vetus17, Platygonus vetus1, Platygonus intermedius n. sp.5, Mylohyus sp., "Mylohyus fossilis" = Mylohyus fossilis1, "Mylohyus exortivus n. sp." = Mylohyus fossilis5, "Mylohyus pennsylvanicus" = Mylohyus fossilis17
Tayassuidae indet. Palmer 1897 peccary
Platygonus sp. Leconte 1848 peccary
Platygonus vetus17 Leidy 1882 peccary
Platygonus vetus1 Leidy 1882 peccary
Platygonus intermedius n. sp.5 Gidley 1920 peccary
Mylohyus sp. Cope 1869 peccary
"Mylohyus fossilis" = Mylohyus fossilis1 Leidy 1860 peccary
"Mylohyus exortivus n. sp." = Mylohyus fossilis5 Leidy 1860 peccary
"Mylohyus pennsylvanicus" = Mylohyus fossilis17 Leidy 1860 peccary
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Suidae indet. Gray 1821 pig
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Euceratherium collinum1 Furlong and Sinclair 1904 shrub ox
Euceratherium americanum17 Gidley 1913 shrub-ox
 Artiodactyla - Cervidae
Cervus sp.8 Linnaeus 1758 deer
Odocoileus cf. virginianus8 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer