Anjohingidrobe Cave (Holocene of Madagascar)

Also known as Giant Lemur Cave, AGB

Where: Beanka, Madagascar (17.9° S, 44.5° E: paleocoordinates 17.9° S, 44.5° E)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Holocene (0.0 - 0.0 Ma)

• Because the cave is predominantly vertical, with no large areas of horizontal or near-horizontal floor, it was necessary to distinguish bone accumulations in and near the cave by separate sublocation numbers, rather than a grid reference. These are noted in Figure 2, and Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of each sublocation. ABG-1 is the sediment layer immediately east of the cave entrance. Where this rock wall enfolds to produce a small alcove, surface material and sediments were sublocated as AGB-1A. Proceeding into the main cave, a small ledge on the east wall inside is covered with a slope of fine debris (ABG-2). Directly below on the cave floor, a dead-end chamber descends farther under the east wall and is partially filled with soft clay sediment (AGB-3). Returning to the entrance, small pockets of bone-rich debris and sediment have accumulated at the base of the 3.8 m entrance drop, in a series of steps downward (AGB-4, AGB-5, and AGB-6). Immediately below AGB-5 and AGB-6 on the southward slope going back into the cave is a larger area of uneven topography, composed of large stones interspersed with bone-rich debris and sediment. This is the very productive sublocation AGB-7. Beneath the uneven floor of the cave near the entrance, there is a small chamber containing sediments with bones (AGB-8). On the opposite (west) wall of the cave, the cave floor descends to its lowest depth below the entrance at −7 m. There is a lag concentrate of darkly stained bones and fine limestone chips in this deepest pocket, in places lightly cemented into a breccia (AGB-9).

•Note: The authors do not distinguish the various specimens per sublocation, so they are all included in the same collection PBDB entry

Environment/lithology: cave; brown, red, silty claystone

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

• Cuts and chop marks on some bones recovered are under study, but none of the sublocations described contained a concentration of bones, pottery, or charcoal that could be attributed exclusively to human activity.

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collected in 1996 - 2009

Primary reference: D. A. Burney, H. Andriamialison, R. A. Andrianaivoarivelo, S. Bourne, B. E. Crowley, E. J. Boer, L. R. Godfrey, S. M. Goodman, C. Griffiths, O. Griffiths, J. P. Hume, W. G. Joyce, W. L. Jungers, S. Marciniak, G. J. Middleton, K. M. Muldoon, E. Noromalala, V. R. Pérez, and G. H. Perry and R. 2019. Subfossil lemur discoveries from the Beanka Protected Area in western Madagascar. Quaternary Research 1-17 [E. Vlachos/E. Vlachos]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 205190: authorized by Evangelos Vlachos, entered by Evangelos Vlachos on 08.10.2019

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Theriamorpha - Tenrecidae
Microgale talazaci Major 1896 Talazacs shrew tenrec
Setifer setosus Froriep 1806 greater hedgehog tenrec
Tenrec ecaudatus Schreber 1778 common tenrec
 Theriamorpha -
Plesiorycteropus sp. Filhol 1895 placental
 Carnivora - Viverridae
"Viverricula indica" = Viverricula malaccensis
"Viverricula indica" = Viverricula malaccensis Gmelin 1788 rasse
 Carnivora - Eupleridae
Cryptoprocta ferox Bennett 1833 fossa
Galidia elegans Geoffroy 1837 ring-tailed mongoose
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felis lybica Forster 1780 African wildcat
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Miniopterus sp. Bonaparte 1837 bend-winged bat
Miniopterus sp. Bonaparte 1837 bend-winged bat
 Chiroptera - Hipposideridae
Triaenops menamena trident bat
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Potamochoerus larvatus Cuvier 1822 pig
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1777 wild goat
 Primates - Lepilemuridae
Lepilemur cf. randrianasoloi Andriaholinirina et al. 2006 sportive lemur
 Primates - Palaeopropithecidae
Babakotia radofilai Godfrey et al. 1990 lemur
 Primates - Archaeolemuridae
Archaeolemur edwardsi Filhol 1895 monkey lemur
 Primates - Indriidae
Propithecus deckenii Grandidier 1867 sifaka
Avahi cf. cleesei Thalmann and Geissmann 2005 avahi
 Primates - Cheirogaleidae
Cheirogaleus medius Geoffroy 1812 fat-tailed dwarf lemur
cf. Cheirogaleus medius Geoffroy 1812 fat-tailed dwarf lemur
Microcebus cf. myoxinus Peters 1852 mouse lemur
 Primates - Lemuridae
Hapalemur cf. griseus Link 1795 lemur
Prolemur simus Gray 1871 lemur
Eulemur rufus Audebert 1799 red lemur
Eulemur mongoz Linnaeus 1766 mongoose lemur
Pachylemur sp. Lamberton 1948 lemur
 Rodentia - Muridae
Rattus rattus Linnaeus 1758 black rat
Mus musculus Linnaeus 1758 house mouse
 Rodentia - Nesomyidae
Eliurus myoxinus tufted-tailed rat
Eliurus sp. Milne-Edwards 1885 tufted-tailed rat
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
cf. Accipiter madagascariensis Verreaux 1833 Madagascar sparrowhawk
cf. Buteo sp. de Lacepède 1799 hawk
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
cf. Lophotibis cristata Boddaert 1783 Madagascar ibis
 Galliformes - Numididae
Numida meleagris Linnaeus 1758 helmeted guineafowl
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
 Passeriformes - Motacillidae
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Dryolimnas cuvieri Pucheran 1845 white-throated rail
 Psittaciformes - Psittaculidae
Coracopsis nigra Linnaeus 1758 Black parrot
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
Coua sp. Schinz 1821 coua
Coua cristata Linnaeus 1766 crested coua
Coua gigas Boddaert 1783 giant coua
 Coraciiformes - Coraciidae
Eurystomus glaucurus Statius Muller 1776 broad-billed roller
 Leptosomiformes - Leptosomidae
Leptosomus discolor Hermann 1783 Cuckoo roller
 Squamata - Gekkonidae
Geckolepis sp. Grandidier 1867 gecko
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Pyxis sp. Bell 1827 turtle
 Testudines - Podocnemididae
Erymnochelys madagascariensis Grandidier 1867 sideneck turtle