Surai Khola (Miocene to of Nepal)

Also known as Mahendra Highway

Where: Nepal (27.8° N, 82.8° E: paleocoordinates 22.3° N, 82.9° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Siwalik Group, Miocene to Miocene (23.0 - 2.6 Ma)

• group-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: mold/impression

Primary reference: M. Prasad. 2008. Angiospermous fossil leaves from the Siwalik foreland basins and their palaeoclimatic implications. The Palaeobotanist 57:177-215 [B. Allen/B. Allen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 222975: authorized by Bethany Allen, entered by Bethany Allen on 01.11.2021, edited by Grace Varnham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Angiospermae
 Poales - Poaceae
Bambusa siwalika Awasthi and Prasad 1990 bamboo
 Zingiberales - Marantaceae
"Clinogyne ovatus" = Donax ovatus
"Clinogyne ovatus" = Donax ovatus Awasthi and Prasad 1990
 Mesangiosperms - Arecaceae
Caryota siwalica Awasthi and Prasad 1990 fishtail palm
 Ranunculales - Menispermaceae
Cocculus miotrilobus Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Santalales - Olacaceae
Olax bankasii Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Gentianales - Apocynaceae
Wrightia palaeotinctoria Prasad and Awasthi 1996 dogbane
Chonemorpha miocenica Prasad and Awasthi 1996 dogbane
 Gentianales - Rubiaceae
Anthocephalus siwalica Prasad and Awasthi 1996 coffee
Diplospora siwalica Prasad and Awasthi 1996 coffee
Randia palaeofasciculata Prasad and Awasthi 1996 indigoberry
 Caryophyllales - Ancistrocladaceae
Ancistrocladus suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Violales - Flacourtiaceae
Flacourtia tertiara Prasad and Awasthi 1996
Flacourtia nepalensis Awasthi and Prasad 1990
Hydnocarpus chorkholaensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996
Hydnocarpus siwalicus Prasad and Awasthi 1996
Xylosma nepalensis Prasad and Pandey 2008 brushholly
 Laurales - Lauraceae
Machilus miocenica Prasad and Pandey 2008 laurel
Actinodaphne palaeoangustifolia Antal and Awasthi 1993 laurel
Cinnamomum nepalensis Prasad and Pandey 2008 cinnamon
 Magnoliales - Annonaceae
Goniothalamus chorkholaensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 custard apple
Polyalthia palaeosiamiarum Awasthi and Prasad 1990 custard apple
Mitrephora siwalika Antal and Awasthi 1993 custard apple
 Magnoliales - Myristicaceae
Myristica palaeoglomerata Awasthi and Prasad 1990 magnoliids
 Fabales - Fabaceae
Koompassia suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Awasthi 1996 legume
Entada palaeoscandens Antal and Awasthi 1993 legume
Pongamia kailakholaensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 legume
Pterocarpus dalbergiocarpoides Prasad and Awasthi 1996 legume
Cynometra palaeoiripa Prasad et al. 2004 legume
Bauhinia nepalensis Awasthi and Prasad 1990 legume
Mucuna miogigantea Prasad and Pandey 2008 legume
Millettia palaeocubithii Awasthi and Prasad 1990 legume
Millettia churiensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 legume
Millettia palaeoracemosa Awasthi and Prasad 1990 legume
Millettia koilabasensis Prasad 1990 legume
Albizia siwalica Prasad 1994 legume
Albizia microfolia Prasad and Awasthi 1996 legume
 Oxalidales - Connaraceae
Rourea palaeorugosa Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Malpighiales - Euphorbiaceae
Breynia prerhamnoides Awasthi and Prasad 1990 spurge
Mallotus kalimpongensis Antal and Awasthi 1993 spurge
Mallotus venkatachalai Prasad 1994 spurge
Phyllanthus palaeoreticulatus Prasad and Awasthi 1996 spurge
Cleistanthus suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Awasthi 1996 spurge
Excoecaria palaeocrenulata Awasthi and Prasad 1990 spurge
Bridelia siwalica Prasad and Pandey 2008 spurge
Bridelia mioretusa Prasad and Pandey 2008 spurge
 Malpighiales - Ochnaceae
Ochna siwalika Prasad and Pandey 2008 bird's-eye bush
 Malpighiales - Clusiaceae
Garcinia corvinusiana Prasad and Pandey 2008
Mesua tertiara Lakhanpal 1964
Calophyllum suraikholaensis n. sp. Awasthi and Prasad 1990
 Malpighiales - Malpighiaceae
Stigmaphyllon chorkholaensis Prasad and Pandey 2008 amazonvine
 Malpighiales - Ctenolophonaceae
Ctenolophon chorkholaensis Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Cucurbitales - Anisophylleaceae
Anisophyllea siwalica Prasad and Awasthi 1996
 Malvales - Malvaceae
Sterculia premontana Prasad and Pandey 2006 tropical chestnut
Sterculia mioensifolia Prasad and Pandey 2008 tropical chestnut
 Malvales - Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus siwalicus Lakhanpal and Guleria 1987
Dipterocarpus suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Pandey 2008
Vatica nepalensis Prasad and Pandey 2008
Shorea palaeostellata Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Sapindales - Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum siwalicum Prasad and Awasthi 1996 citrus
Murraya khariensis Lakhanpal and Guleria 1982 citrus
 Sapindales - Sapindaceae
Euphorea siwalica Prasad 1994 soapberry
Harpullia siwalica Prasad and Awasthi 1996 tulipwood
Xerospermum mioglabratum Prasad and Pandey 2008 soapberry
 Sapindales - Anacardiaceae
Bouea koilabasensis Prasad 1994 cashew
Mangifera someshwarica Lakhanpal and Awasthi 1984 mango
Mangifera suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Pandey 2008 mango
Swintonia palaeoschwenckii Prasad and Awasthi 1996 cashew
Swintonia miocenica Awasthi and Prasad 1990 cashew
Gluta siwalica Awasthi and Prasad 1990 cashew
 Sapindales - Meliaceae
Chisocheton suraikholaensis n. sp. Prasad and Pandey 2008 mahogany
Dysoxylum raptiensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 mahogany
Chukrasia miocenica Prasad 1994 mahogany
Toona siwalica Awasthi and Lakhanpal 1990 mahogany
 Rosids - Moraceae
Artocarpus nepalensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 mulberry
Ficus raptiensis Prasad and Awasthi 1996 fig
Dicotyledoneae
 Primulales - Myrsinaceae
Myrsine precapitellata Prasad and Pandey 2008
 Ericales - Ebenaceae
Diospyros miokaki Awasthi and Prasad 1990
Diospyros miocenicus Prasad and Awasthi 1996
 Myrtales - Myrtaceae
Syzygium palaeocuminii Prasad and Awasthi 1996 bush cherry
 Myrtales - Combretaceae
Terminalia palaeochebula Awasthi and Prasad 1990
Terminalia panandhroensis Lahkanpal and Guleria 1978
 Myrtales - Lythraceae
Duabanga siwalica Prasad and Pandey 2008
Reptilia
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus palustris Lesson 1831 mugger crocodile
NHM/TU 1989, NHM/TU 1989/30 (scutes)
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
NHM/TU 1989 (bone fragment)
cf. Lissemys indet. Smith 1931 softshell turtle
NHM/TU 1989/37 (left epiplastron)
 Testudines - Testudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
NHM/TU 1989/C (peripheral fragment); NHM/TU 1989/D (distal part of first pleural)
 Testudines - Emydidae
"Bataguridae indet." = Batagurinae, Omegachelys sahnii
"Bataguridae indet." = Batagurinae Gray 1870 turtle
NHM/TU 1989/40 (pleural); NHM/TU 1989 (pleural); NHM/TU 1989/ (nuchal)
Omegachelys sahnii Srivastava and Schleich 2018 turtle
TU/NHM 1989/36 (partial carapace)