Makapansgat - Mbr. 4 (Pliocene of South Africa)

Also known as ETE Locality 1179, Cercopithecid Breccia, Pink stony Breccia, Upper Phase IBreccia, Makapansgat - Mbr. 4,

Where: South Africa (24.2° S, 29.0° E: paleocoordinates 24.4° S, 28.6° E)

When: 14 Member (Makapansgat Formation), Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• ETE dating method: time_unit, ETE age comment: "Fauna /paleomag data sugg age =~3.0 Ma,range=3.32 to 2.6 Ma"

Environment/lithology: cave

• ETE sed env 1: trap, ETE sed env 2: cave ETE event: ., ETE env comment: depos in pools/sheetfloods
• ETE rock type adj: 0, ETE lithology comments: A:pnk-rd sndy loam ;B:rd-br-pnk loam

Collection methods: ETE Size: both; ETE reference list: 933, ; ETE museum list:

Primary reference: R. F. Ewer. 1958. The fossil suidae of Makapansgat. Journal of Zoology 130(3):329-371 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Kosnik]more details

PaleoDB collection 22355: authorized by Anna Behrensmeyer, entered by Anna Behrensmeyer on 23.08.1999, edited by John Damuth

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Scarabeidae indet.
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Coprini dung balls
 Coleoptera - Trogidae
cf. Trogidae indet. MacLeay 1819 hide beetle
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: cf. Trogidae
 Primates - Hominidae
Hominidae indet. Gray 1825 ape
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hominidae
Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925 australopithecine
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
"Simopithecus darti" = Theropithecus
"Simopithecus darti" = Theropithecus gelada
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: darti
 Rodentia - Bathyergidae
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix africaeaustralis Peters 1852 Cape porcupine
 Carnivora - Felidae
Panthera pardus Linnaeus 1758 leopard
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
 Hyracoidea - Procaviidae
Procavia antiqua Broom 1934 Cape hyrax
Procavia transvaalensis Shaw 1937 Cape hyrax
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Parmularius braini Vrba 1977 antelope