Gray Fossil Site (Neogene to of the United States)

Where: Washington County, Tennessee (36.4° N, 82.5° W: paleocoordinates 36.6° N, 81.2° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Hemphillian to Late/Upper Hemphillian (10.3 - 4.9 Ma)

• "4.5 to 7 Myr (late Miocene to early Pliocene" (meaning late Hemphillian to early Blancan)"

•Samuels et al., 2018: "Considering the Gray Fossil Site fauna in total, a revised estimate of the age of the Gray Fossil Site is Early Pliocene near the Hemphillian–Blancan transition, likely between 4.9 and 4.5 Ma (Fig. 2)."

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: sinkhole; argillaceous, sandy siltstone and conglomerate

• "highly laminated, organic laden, silty sediments" (Wallace et al. 2002)

•"finely laminated clays, silts, and fine sands intermixed with isolated gravel lenses that fill a former sinkhole... up to 39 m thick... result of a small lake or pond that formed within the sinkhole" (Wallace and Wang 2004)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Reposited in the FLMNH

Collection methods: quarrying,

Primary reference: S. C. Wallace and X. Wang. 2004. Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America. Nature 431:556-559 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 26574: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 17.10.2002, edited by Richard Hulbert, Evangelos Vlachos, Mark Uhen, Patricia Holroyd and Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Caudata - Urodela
Notophthalmus sp.1 Rafinesque 1820 newt
"Ambystoma sp." = Amblystoma1 Tschudi 1838 mole salamander
Desmognathus sp.1 Baird 1850 lungless salamander
Plethodon sp.1 Tschudi 1838 woodland salamander
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Sternotherus sp.2 Gray 1825 musk turtle
Sternotherus palaeodorus n. sp.3 Bourque and Schubert 2015 musk turtle
ETMNH 13912 (Figs. 2, 3), nearly complete carapace and plastron of an adult. Specimen is missing the right P2, right epiplastron, right hyoplastron, right xiphiplastron, and right hypoplastral buttress
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
Chelydra sp.6 Schweigger 1812 Snapping turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet.6 Batsch 1788 turtle
"smaller testudinid"
Hesperotestudo sp.6 Williams 1950 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emydidae indet.6 Rafinesque 1815 turtle
Trachemys sp.6 Agassiz 1857 slider
Trachemys haugrudi n. sp.6 Jasinski 2018 slider
Terrapene sp.6 Merrem 1820 box turtle
"or Terrapene-like taxon"
Chrysemys sp. Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Ornithurae -
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator sp. Daudin 1809 alligator
 Squamata - Colubridae
cf. Regina sp. Baird and Girard 1853 crayfish snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
cf. Sistrurus sp. Garman 1883 pigmy rattlesnake
 Glires -
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras sp. Hatcher 1894 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapiravus polkensis" = Tapirus polkensis
"Tapiravus polkensis" = Tapirus polkensis Olsen 1960 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
cf. Cormohipparion sp.5 Skinner and MacFadden 1977 hipparionine horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Plionarctos sp. Frick 1926 bear
 Carnivora - Ailuridae
Pristinailurus bristoli n. gen. n. sp.
Pristinailurus bristoli n. gen. n. sp. Wallace and Wang 2004 red panda
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Gulo sudorus n. sp.7 Samuels et al. 2018 wolverine
ETMNH 3663
Arctomeles dimolodontus n. sp. Wallace and Wang 2004 badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet. Fischer 1817 canid
 Carnivora - Felidae
cf. Machairodus sp. Kaup 1833 cat
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotheriidae indet. Hay 1922 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
cf. Mylohyus elmorei4 White 1942 peccary
ETMNH 6767
Mylohyus elmorei4 White 1942 peccary
Prosthennops serus4 Cope 1877 peccary
ETMNH 410, 5615, UF/TRO 413, UF 220251
 Ungulata - Camelidae
cf. Megatylopus sp. Matthew and Cook 1909 camel
Amphibia indet.8 tetrapod
 Pinales - Pinaceae
Pinus sp. Linnaeus 1753 pine
 Cyperales - Commelinidae
Gramineae indet. de Jussieu true grass
Cyperaceae indet. Jussieu 1789 sedge
 Urticales - Dilleniidae
Celtis sp. Linnaeus 1753 hackberry
Ulmus sp. Linnaeus 1753 elm
 Scrophulariales - Asteridae
Fraxinus sp. Linnaeus
 Juglandales - Hamamelidae
Carya sp. Nuttall 1818 hickory
 Caryophyllales - Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae indet. de Jussieu 1789
 Asterales - Asteraceae
Asteraceae indet. von Berchtold and Presl 1820
"Ambrosia-type ('ragweed')"
 Fagales - Betulaceae
Betula sp. Linnaeus 1753 birch
Alnus sp. Miller 1768 alder
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Quercus sp. Linnaeus 1753
 Violales - Salicaceae
Salix sp. Linnaeus 1753 willow