Santa Cruz Formation (Miocene of Argentina)

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.0° S, 70.0° W: paleocoordinates 50.5° S, 65.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Middle Miocene (16.0 - 11.6 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 [J. Head/J. Head/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 27313: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 01.12.2002, edited by Mark Uhen and Jelle Zijlstra

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Aves
 Cariamae - Phorusrhacidae
"Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus intermedius n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei11, "Phororhacos longissimus" = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11, "Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11, Brontornis burmeisteri11
"Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus intermedius n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Phororhacos longissimus" = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
BMNH-A516, partial skeleton (ref. 58178)
"Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
originally stated to be from the Eocene, but almost certainly Miocene
Brontornis burmeisteri11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
 Anseriformes -
Eutelornis patagonicus4 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A596, distal end of humerus and proximal tibiotarsus
Eoneornis australis4 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A595, distal end of radius
 Gruiformes -
Anisolornis excavatus4 bird
BMNH-A 594, distal tarsometatarsus
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Protibis cnemialis4 Ameghino 1891 ibis
BMNH-A598, distal end of right tibiotarsus
 Rheiformes - Rheidae
Opisthodactylus patagonicus4 Ameghino 1891 rhea
BMNH-A 586, distal tarsometatarsi and phalanges; BMNH-A 587, symphysis, distal tibiotarsi; BMNH-A 588, distal tarsometarsus fragments
 Sphenisciformes - Spheniscidae
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus11
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 penguin
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Liptornis hesternus4 Ameghino 1894 darter
BMNH-A 509, cervical vertebra
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
Mammalia
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6, "Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MLP 66-V-2-2, mandibular fragment with i2, c, p2-3 roots, broken p4, broken m1; MLP 11-121, left dp4-m1, unerupted p4
"Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 635, symphysis with roots of left and right i1-2 and right p2-3, alveoli for left and right canines, right p4 in situ, holotype. Ref. 58226 state that the specimen comes from one of the coastal localities of the Santa Cruz Fm; ref. 47173 lists it as from near the city of Río Gallegos
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Nesodon sp.3 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9128, cranium, mandible
Nesodon imbricatus3 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9192, mandible, humerus, ulna; YPM-VPPU 15132, ulna; 15141, cranium; 15256, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna; 15260, mandible
Adinotherium sp.3 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium
Adinotherium robustum3 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
AMNH 9497, cranium
 Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Homalodotherium cunninghami3 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15747, ulna
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Hegetotherium mirabile3 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9159, cranium and mandible; YPM-VPPU 15298, mandible, tibia; 15395, tibia
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Interatherium robustum3 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15100, cranium, mandible; 15108, humerus, ulna, tibia; 15554, mandible; 15401, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
 Notoungulata - Protypotheriidae
Protypotherium sp.3 Ameghino 1882 notoungulate
MACN-A 9657–63, humerus
Protypotherium australe3 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
AMNH 9149, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Proeutatus sp.13 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 1063, humerus; MLP 69-IX-8-11, near-complete skeleton
Stenotatus sp.13 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MLP 69-IX-5-11, femur
Stenotatus hesternus13 armadillo
MACN-A 871–878, osteoderms
Stenotatus patagonicus13 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-A 898–900, osteoderms
"Prozaedyus proximus" = Prozaedius proximus13 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-A 2201, partial carapace
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus pumilus13 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 7784–7791, skull, mandible, postcrania
 Xenarthra - Myrmecophagidae
Myrmecophagidae indet.2, "Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10, "Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10, "Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10
Myrmecophagidae indet.2 edentate
MLP 69-IX-8-8a, left humerus
"Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 10901b, calcaneum
"Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP ? right astragalus (now lost), cast = MACN A-4621b
"Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 11530, astragalus
 Xenarthra -
Eucholoeops ingens2, Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.10, Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.10
Eucholoeops ingens2 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 11614, left half of skull and dentary
Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP 69-IX-5-16, left astragalus
Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.10 edentate
MACN A-11687, left astragalus
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
Metopotoxus laevatus13 glyptodon
MACN-A 1042, fragment of carapace
Cochlops muricatus13 Ameghino 1889 glyptodon
MACN-A 2120, mandible, right femur
Propalaehoplophorus australis13 Ameghino 1887 glyptodon
MLP 16–15, skull, mandible, skeleton
 Ungulata - Proterotheriidae
Tetramerorhinus fortis n. sp.3 Ameghino 1894 eutherian
MACN-A 5971, cranium, type
Diadiaphorus majusculus3 Ameghino 1887 eutherian
AMNH 9196, mandible; 9291, cranium, mandible
 Sparassodonta -
Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-100, dentary p2; MLP 11-13, dentary p1-m4; MLP 11-63, dentary m1-4; MLP 11-68, dentary p1; MLP 11-87, maxilla M2-3
Acyon tricuspidatus12 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN-A 9
Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-105, c and m1-2; MLP 11-76, dentary m2; MLP 11-77, dentary m3; MLP 11-41, dentary p1, p3
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Prothylacynus patagonicus7, Arctodictis munizi5, "Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata12, "Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata5
Prothylacynus patagonicus7 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
BM(NH) M8075, partial maxilla with teeth; MACN 11540, dentary left and right m2-4
Arctodictis munizi5 Mercerat 1891 metatherian
MLP 11-65, skull and mandible; MLP 11-81, left m4; MLP 11-89, right m2
"Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata12 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
Ref. 58202: YPM-VPPU 15701, from "South of Río Coyle". Ref. 58303: MACN A 6238, partial skull, mandible, and postcrania; 9342-3, jaw fragments; 9344, skull; MACN unnumbered, maxillary fragment; MACN unnumbered, both hemimandibles
"Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata5 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN A 6238, skull fragment, holotype
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Microbiotherium tehuelchum n. sp.9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MLP 11-36, right dentary with p2-m, neotype; PU 15038, maxilla M2-3, dentary c-m3, postcrania, skull fragment; MLP 11-35, dentary p2-m3; MLP 58-IX-3-4, partial skull
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 2031, dentary m2; 2032, dentary m2-4; 2033, dentary m2-4; 2034, dentary m1-3; MLP 11-109, dentary m1-2; 11-133, dentary m2-3; 55-XII-13-144, dentary m2; MACN 11651, dentary p3-m4