Santa Cruz Formation (Miocene of Argentina)

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.0° S, 70.0° W: paleocoordinates 50.5° S, 65.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Middle Miocene (16.0 - 11.6 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 [J. Head/J. Head/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 27313: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 01.12.2002, edited by Mark Uhen, Jelle Zijlstra and Miranta Kouvari

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Aves
 Cariamae - Phorusrhacidae
"Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus intermedius n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11, "Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei11, "Phororhacos longissimus" = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11, "Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11, "Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11, Brontornis burmeisteri11
"Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus intermedius n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Phororhacos longissimus" = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phororhacos longissimus11 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
BMNH-A516, partial skeleton (ref. 58178)
"Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
originally stated to be from the Eocene, but almost certainly Miocene
Brontornis burmeisteri11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
 Anseriformes -
Eutelornis patagonicus4 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A596, distal end of humerus and proximal tibiotarsus
Eoneornis australis4 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A595, distal end of radius
 Gruiformes -
Anisolornis excavatus4 bird
BMNH-A 594, distal tarsometatarsus
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Protibis cnemialis4 Ameghino 1891 ibis
BMNH-A598, distal end of right tibiotarsus
 Rheiformes - Rheidae
Opisthodactylus patagonicus4 Ameghino 1891 rhea
BMNH-A 586, distal tarsometatarsi and phalanges; BMNH-A 587, symphysis, distal tibiotarsi; BMNH-A 588, distal tarsometarsus fragments
 Sphenisciformes - Spheniscidae
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus11
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus11 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 penguin
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Liptornis hesternus4 Ameghino 1894 darter
BMNH-A 509, cervical vertebra
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
Mammalia
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6, "Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MLP 66-V-2-2, mandibular fragment with i2, c, p2-3 roots, broken p4, broken m1; MLP 11-121, left dp4-m1, unerupted p4
"Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 635, symphysis with roots of left and right i1-2 and right p2-3, alveoli for left and right canines, right p4 in situ, holotype. Ref. 58226 state that the specimen comes from one of the coastal localities of the Santa Cruz Fm; ref. 47173 lists it as from near the city of Río Gallegos
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Nesodon sp.3 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9128, cranium, mandible
Nesodon imbricatus3 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9192, mandible, humerus, ulna; YPM-VPPU 15132, ulna; 15141, cranium; 15256, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna; 15260, mandible
Adinotherium sp.3 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium
Adinotherium sp.13 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
P13229, P13232, P13245
Adinotherium ovinum13 Owen 1846 notoungulate
P12066, P13098, P13104, P13107, P13108, P13110, P13231, UC1508, YPM-PU 16033
Adinotherium robustum3 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
AMNH 9497, cranium
 Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Homalodotherium cunninghami3 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15747, ulna
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Hegetotherium mirabile3 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9159, cranium and mandible; YPM-VPPU 15298, mandible, tibia; 15395, tibia
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Interatherium robustum3 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15100, cranium, mandible; 15108, humerus, ulna, tibia; 15554, mandible; 15401, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
 Notoungulata - Protypotheriidae
Protypotherium sp.3 Ameghino 1882 notoungulate
MACN-A 9657–63, humerus
Protypotherium praeutilium13 notoungulate
P12058
Protypotherium australe3 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
AMNH 9149, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
Protypotherium australe13 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
YPM-PU 15203, 15350, 15551
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Proeutatus sp.14 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 1063, humerus; MLP 69-IX-8-11, near-complete skeleton
Stenotatus sp.14 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MLP 69-IX-5-11, femur
Stenotatus hesternus14 armadillo
MACN-A 871–878, osteoderms
Stenotatus patagonicus14 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-A 898–900, osteoderms
"Prozaedyus proximus" = Prozaedius proximus14 Ameghino 1887 armadillo
MACN-A 2201, partial carapace
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus pumilus14 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 7784–7791, skull, mandible, postcrania
 Xenarthra - Myrmecophagidae
Myrmecophagidae indet.2, "Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10, "Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10, "Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10
Myrmecophagidae indet.2 edentate
MLP 69-IX-8-8a, left humerus
"Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 10901b, calcaneum
"Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP ? right astragalus (now lost), cast = MACN A-4621b
"Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 11530, astragalus
 Xenarthra -
Eucholoeops ingens2, Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.10, Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.10
Eucholoeops ingens2 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 11614, left half of skull and dentary
Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.10 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP 69-IX-5-16, left astragalus
Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.10 edentate
MACN A-11687, left astragalus
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
Metopotoxus laevatus14 glyptodon
MACN-A 1042, fragment of carapace
Cochlops muricatus14 Ameghino 1889 glyptodon
MACN-A 2120, mandible, right femur
Propalaehoplophorus australis14 Ameghino 1887 glyptodon
MLP 16–15, skull, mandible, skeleton
 Ungulata - Proterotheriidae
Tetramerorhinus fortis n. sp.3 Ameghino 1894 eutherian
MACN-A 5971, cranium, type
Diadiaphorus majusculus3 Ameghino 1887 eutherian
AMNH 9196, mandible; 9291, cranium, mandible
 Sparassodonta -
Cladosictis patagonica8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-100, dentary p2; MLP 11-13, dentary p1-m4; MLP 11-63, dentary m1-4; MLP 11-68, dentary p1; MLP 11-87, maxilla M2-3
Acyon tricuspidatus12 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN-A 9
Sipalocyon gracilis8 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-105, c and m1-2; MLP 11-76, dentary m2; MLP 11-77, dentary m3; MLP 11-41, dentary p1, p3
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Prothylacynus patagonicus7, Arctodictis munizi5, "Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata12, "Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata5
Prothylacynus patagonicus7 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
BM(NH) M8075, partial maxilla with teeth; MACN 11540, dentary left and right m2-4
Arctodictis munizi5 Mercerat 1891 metatherian
MLP 11-65, skull and mandible; MLP 11-81, left m4; MLP 11-89, right m2
"Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata12 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
Ref. 58202: YPM-VPPU 15701, from "South of Río Coyle". Ref. 58303: MACN A 6238, partial skull, mandible, and postcrania; 9342-3, jaw fragments; 9344, skull; MACN unnumbered, maxillary fragment; MACN unnumbered, both hemimandibles
"Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata5 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN A 6238, skull fragment, holotype
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Microbiotherium tehuelchum n. sp.9 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MLP 11-36, right dentary with p2-m, neotype; PU 15038, maxilla M2-3, dentary c-m3, postcrania, skull fragment; MLP 11-35, dentary p2-m3; MLP 58-IX-3-4, partial skull
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 2031, dentary m2; 2032, dentary m2-4; 2033, dentary m2-4; 2034, dentary m1-3; MLP 11-109, dentary m1-2; 11-133, dentary m2-3; 55-XII-13-144, dentary m2; MACN 11651, dentary p3-m4