Santa Cruz Formation (Miocene of Argentina)

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.0° S, 70.0° W: paleocoordinates 50.6° S, 64.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• basin-level geographic resolution

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Santacrucian (17.5 - 16.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 [J. Head/J. Head/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 27313: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 01.12.2002, edited by Mark Uhen, Jelle Zijlstra, Miranta Kouvari and Edward Medeiros

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
 Xenarthra -
Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.12
Orthoarthrus mixtus n. gen. n. sp.12 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP 69-IX-5-16, left astragalus
 Xenarthra - Myrmecophagidae
Myrmecophagidae indet.3, "Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12, "Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12, "Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12
Myrmecophagidae indet.3 edentate
MLP 69-IX-8-8a, left humerus
"Protamandua rothi n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 10901b, calcaneum
"Promyrmephagus dolichoarthrus n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MLP ? right astragalus (now lost), cast = MACN A-4621b
"Promyrmephagus euryarthrus n. gen. n. sp." = Protamandua rothi12 Ameghino 1904 edentate
MACN-A 11530, astragalus
 Megatherioidea - Megalonychidae
Eucholoeops ingens3 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 11614, left half of skull and dentary
 Cingulata - Chlamyphoridae
Prozaedyus proximus16 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 2201, partial carapace
Proeutatus sp.16 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 1063, humerus; MLP 69-IX-8-11, near-complete skeleton
Stenotatus sp.16 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MLP 69-IX-5-11, femur
Stenotatus hesternus16 Ameghino 1889 edentate
MACN-A 871–878, osteoderms
Stenotatus patagonicus16 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 898–900, osteoderms
 Cingulata - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus pumilus16 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 7784–7791, skull, mandible, postcrania
 Cingulata - Propalaehoplophoridae
Cochlops muricatus16 Ameghino 1889 edentate
MACN-A 2120, mandible, right femur
Metopotoxus laevatus16 Ameghino 1889 edentate
MACN-A 1042, fragment of carapace
Propalaehoplophorus australis16 Moreno 1882 edentate
MLP 16–15, skull, mandible, skeleton
 Xenarthra -
Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.12
Argyromanis patagonicus n. gen. n. sp.12 edentate
MACN A-11687, left astragalus
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
"Interatherium robustum" = Interatherium extensus4 Fernández et al. 2023 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15100, cranium, mandible; 15108, humerus, ulna, tibia; 15554, mandible; 15401, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
Protypotherium sp.4 Ameghino 1882 notoungulate
MACN-A 9657–63, humerus
Protypotherium praeutilium15 notoungulate
P12058
Protypotherium australe4 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
AMNH 9149, humerus, ulna, femur, tibia
Protypotherium australe15 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
YPM-PU 15203, 15350, 15551
 Notoungulata - Hegetotheriidae
Hegetotherium mirabile4 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9159, cranium and mandible; YPM-VPPU 15298, mandible, tibia; 15395, tibia
 Notoungulata - Homalodotheriidae
Homalodotherium cunninghami4 Flower 1884 notoungulate
YPM-VPPU 15747, ulna
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Adinotherium sp.4, Adinotherium sp.15, "Adinotherium ovinum" = Adinotherium ovinum15, "Adinotherium robustum" = Adinotherium ovinum4, Nesodon sp.4, Nesodon imbricatus4
Adinotherium sp.4 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium
Adinotherium sp.15 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
P13229, P13232, P13245
"Adinotherium ovinum" = Adinotherium ovinum15 Owen 1846 notoungulate
P12066, P13098, P13104, P13107, P13108, P13110, P13231, UC1508, YPM-PU 16033
"Adinotherium robustum" = Adinotherium ovinum4 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9497, cranium
Nesodon sp.4 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9128, cranium, mandible
Nesodon imbricatus4 Owen 1846 notoungulate
AMNH 9192, mandible, humerus, ulna; YPM-VPPU 15132, ulna; 15141, cranium; 15256, cranium, mandible, humerus, ulna; 15260, mandible
 Rodentia -
Acarechimys sp.2 Patterson 1965 caviomorph
MACN-A 1895
Acarechimys constans2 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MLP 15-57 (syntype of Stichomys constans), MACN-A 247 (syntype of Stichomys constans)
Acarechimys minutus2 Patterson and Pascual 1967 caviomorph
MACN-A 237 (syntype of Acaremys minutus) MACN-A 238 (syntype of Acaremys minutus), MACN-A 4082, , MLP 82-XII-1-31
Acarechimys minutissimus2 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 256 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus) MACN-A 257 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus) MACN-A 258 (syntype of Acaremys minutissimus), MLP 15-1, MLP 15-1, MACN-A 4089, MACN-A 4088, MACN-A 4079 MACN-A 4080 MACN-A4081 MACN-A 4083 MACN-A 4084 MACN-A 4085 MACN-A 4086 MACN-A 4087, MACN-A 4076 MACN-A 4077
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus8, "Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus8
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus8 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MLP 66-V-2-2, mandibular fragment with i2, c, p2-3 roots, broken p4, broken m1; MLP 11-121, left dp4-m1, unerupted p4
"Anthropops perfectus n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus8 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 635, symphysis with roots of left and right i1-2 and right p2-3, alveoli for left and right canines, right p4 in situ, holotype. Ref. 58226 state that the specimen comes from one of the coastal localities of the Santa Cruz Fm; ref. 47173 lists it as from near the city of Río Gallegos
 Panameriungulata - Proterotheriidae
Diadiaphorus majusculus4 Ameghino 1887 placental
AMNH 9196, mandible; 9291, cranium, mandible
Tetramerorhinus fortis n. sp.4 Ameghino 1894 placental
MACN-A 5971, cranium, type
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 2031, dentary m2; 2032, dentary m2-4; 2033, dentary m2-4; 2034, dentary m1-3; MLP 11-109, dentary m1-2; 11-133, dentary m2-3; 55-XII-13-144, dentary m2; MACN 11651, dentary p3-m4
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Microbiotherium tehuelchum n. sp.11 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MLP 11-36, right dentary with p2-m, neotype; PU 15038, maxilla M2-3, dentary c-m3, postcrania, skull fragment; MLP 11-35, dentary p2-m3; MLP 58-IX-3-4, partial skull
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
Prothylacynus patagonicus9, Arctodictis munizi7, "Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata14, "Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata7
Prothylacynus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
BM(NH) M8075, partial maxilla with teeth; MACN 11540, dentary left and right m2-4
Arctodictis munizi7 Mercerat 1891 metatherian
MLP 11-65, skull and mandible; MLP 11-81, left m4; MLP 11-89, right m2
"Borhyaena tuberata" = Borhyaena tuberata14 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
Ref. 58202: YPM-VPPU 15701, from "South of Río Coyle". Ref. 58303: MACN A 6238, partial skull, mandible, and postcrania; 9342-3, jaw fragments; 9344, skull; MACN unnumbered, maxillary fragment; MACN unnumbered, both hemimandibles
"Borhyaena zitteli n. sp." = Borhyaena tuberata7 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN A 6238, skull fragment, holotype
 Sparassodonta -
Sipalocyon gracilis10 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-105, c and m1-2; MLP 11-76, dentary m2; MLP 11-77, dentary m3; MLP 11-41, dentary p1, p3
Cladosictis patagonica10 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MLP 11-100, dentary p2; MLP 11-13, dentary p1-m4; MLP 11-63, dentary m1-4; MLP 11-68, dentary p1; MLP 11-87, maxilla M2-3
Acyon tricuspidatus14 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN-A 9
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
Aves
 Gruiformes -
Anisolornis excavatus5 bird
BMNH-A 594, distal tarsometatarsus
 Gruiformes - Phorusrhacidae
Psilopterus sp.6, Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp.13, "Psilopterus lemoinei" = Psilopterus lemoinei6, "Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei13, "Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni13, Psilopterus intermedius n. sp.13, "Phororhacos longissimus" = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13, "Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi13, "Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi13
Psilopterus sp.6 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
MPM-PV 18901 (postcranial elements; fragments of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus)
Psilopterus communis n. gen. n. sp.13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Psilopterus lemoinei" = Psilopterus lemoinei6 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
MPM-PV 18897 (postcranial elements including long-bone fragments)
"Psilopterus australis n. sp." = Psilopterus lemoinei13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Patagornis bachmanni n. sp." = Psilopterus bachmanni13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
Psilopterus intermedius n. sp.13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
"Phororhacos longissimus" = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Mesembriornis quatrefragesi n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis socialis n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis lydekkeri n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Owenornis affinis n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Stereornis rollieri n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis copei n. gen. n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Darwinornis zitteli n. sp." = Phorusrhacos longissimus13 Ameghino 1887 terror bird
"Patagornis marshi n. gen. n. sp." = Patagornis marshi13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
BMNH-A516, partial skeleton (ref. 58178)
"Palaeociconia cristata n. sp." = Patagornis marshi13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 terror bird
originally stated to be from the Eocene, but almost certainly Miocene
 Anseriformes -
Brontornis burmeisteri13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 waterfowl
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Eutelornis patagonicus5 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A596, distal end of humerus and proximal tibiotarsus
Eoneornis australis5 Ameghino 1894 waterfowl
BMNH-A595, distal end of radius
 Tinamiformes - Tinamidae
Tinamidae gen6 tinamou
MPM-PV 18900, (postcranial elements; proximal end of left carpometacarpus)
 Rheiformes - Rheidae
Opisthodactylus patagonicus5 Ameghino 1891 rhea
BMNH-A 586, distal tarsometatarsi and phalanges; BMNH-A 587, symphysis, distal tibiotarsi; BMNH-A 588, distal tarsometarsus fragments
Opisthodactylus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1891 rhea
MPM-PV 18903 and MPM-PV 18904 (postcranial elements; distal ends of left tibiotarsi)
 Sphenisciformes - Spheniscidae
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus13
"Palaeospheniscus antarcticus" = Paraptenodytes antarcticus13 Moreno and Mercerat 1891 penguin
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Protibis cnemialis5 Ameghino 1891 ibis
BMNH-A598, distal end of right tibiotarsus
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
"Liptornis hesternus" = Anhinga hesterna5
"Liptornis hesternus" = Anhinga hesterna5 Ameghino 1894 darter
BMNH-A 509, cervical vertebra