Swatara Gap, 3 km north of Lickdale (Ordovician of the United States)

Where: Lebanon County, Pennsylvania (40.5° N, 76.5° W: paleocoordinates 29.2° S, 55.9° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Climacograptus spiniferus graptolite zone, Reedsville Member (Martinsburg Formation), Edenian (460.9 - 449.5 Ma)

• Wright et al. (1977) and Lehmann (1986) assigned these rocks to the Climacograptus spiniferus Zone

•Blake notes that this is now Edenian, not Chatfieldian-Edenian.

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: offshore; lithified, argillaceous siltstone and lithified, silty mudstone

• may also include some transition zone environments
• facies also includes claystone that contains a sparse, low-diversity fossil fauna

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: cast, mold/impression

Collection methods: surface (float),

Primary reference: D. Lehman and J.K. Pope. 1990. Upper Ordovician tempestites from Swatara Gap, Pennsylvania: depositional processes affecting the sediments and paleoecology of the fossil faunas. Palaios 4:553-564 [S. Holland/S. Holland/S. Holland]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34895: authorized by Steven Holland, entered by Steven Holland on 13.10.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Lehman & Pope's list, compiled from Wright et al., 1977; Busch, 1981; Lehmann, 1986
unclassified
  -
Xenocrinidae indet.
originally entered as "xenocrinoid indet."
Trilobita
 Phacopida -
Phacopida indet. Salter 1864 trilobite
originally entered as "phacopid indet."
 Phacopida - Pterygometopidae
 Phacopida - Calymenidae
Gravicalymene sp. Shirley 1936 trilobite
 Asaphida - Asaphidae
Isotelus gigas Dekay 1824 trilobite
 Asaphida - Trinucleidae
Cryptolithus bellulus Ulrich 1879 trilobite
 Proetida - Dimeropygidae
Mesotaphraspis sp. Whittington and Evitt 1953 trilobite
 Proetida - Proetidae
 Ptychopariida - Olenidae
Triarthrus becki Green 1832 trilobite
 Lichida - Lichidae
Platylichas sp. G├╝rich 1901 trilobite
 Lichida - Odontopleuridae
Diacanthaspis sp. Whittington 1941 trilobite
Ostracoda
 Beyrichiacea - Eurychilinidae
 Palaeocopida -
Xiphosura
 Xiphosurida -
Hyolitha
 Hyolithida - Hyolithidae
Hyolithes sp. d'Eichwald 1840
Strophomenata
 Strophomenida - Sowerbyellidae
"Thaerodonta rugosa" = Sowerbyella rugosa Meek 1873
 Strophomenida - Rafinesquinidae
Leptaena cf. richmondensis Foerste 1909
Leptaena richmondensis precursor
Rhynchonellata
 Pentamerida - Clarkellidae
 Pentamerida - Camerellidae
Camerella sp. Billings 1859
 Atrypida - Anazygidae
Zygospira sp. Hall 1862
 Orthida - Dalmanellidae
"Onniella multisecta" = Cincinnetina multisecta
"Onniella multisecta" = Cincinnetina multisecta James 1871
 Orthida - Plectorthidae
Lingulata
 Lingulida -
Linguloidea indet. Menke 1828
originally entered as "linguloid indet."
 Lingulida - Pseudolingulidae
Craniata
 Craniopsida - Craniopsidae
 Craniida - Craniidae
Bivalvia
 Myalinida - Ambonychiidae
? Byssonychia cf. vera Ulrich 1893 clam
 Ostreida - Pterineidae
Pterinea sp. Goldfuss 1832 oyster
 Cardiidia - Grammysiidae
Cuneamya sp. Hall and Whitfield 1875 clam
 Modiomorphida - Modiomorphidae
Modiolopsis sp. Hall 1847 clam
Colpomya faba Hall 1847 clam
Colpomya faba intermedia
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
Rhytimya sp. Ulrich 1893 clam
Rhytimya radiata Ulrich 1893 clam
 Nuculida - Praenuculidae
"Ctenodonta filistriata" = Homilodonta filistriata
"Ctenodonta filistriata" = Homilodonta filistriata Ulrich 1894 clam
 Protobranchia -
"Cleidophorus planulatus" = Nuculites planulatus
"Cleidophorus planulatus" = Nuculites planulatus Conrad 1841 clam
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
several undetermined forms [originally entered as "gastropod indet."]
 Trochonematoidea - Lophospiridae
Lophospira sp. Whitfield 1886 snail
 Bellerophontida - Sinuitidae
Sinuites cancellatus Hall 1847 snail
 Murchisoniina - Eotomariidae
"Liospira americanum" = Liospira americana
"Liospira americanum" = Liospira americana Billings 1860 snail
Tentaculita
 Cornulitida - Cornulitidae
Tergomya
 Archinacellida - Archinacellidae
Archinacella sp. Ulrich and Scofield 1897
Cephalopoda
 Nautiloidea -
Nautiloidea indet. Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
indeterminate orthocone [originally entered as "informal nautiloid indet."]
Gymnolaemata
 Ctenostomata - Vinellidae
Vinella sp. Ulrich 1890
Stenolaemata
 Fenestrida - Polyporidae
 Trepostomida -
Batostoma sp. Ulrich 1882
 Cyclostomata -
Berenicea sp. Lamouroux 1821
 Trepostomata - Heterotrypidae
Dekayella sp. Ulrich 1882
 Trepostomata - Halloporidae
 Cryptostomida -
Rhinidictya sp. Ulrich 1882
Graptolithina
 Diplograptoidea - Diplograptidae
Orthograptus quadrimucronatus Hall 1865 diplograptoid
Orthograptus quadrimucronatus micracanthus
Diplograptus nexus diplograptoid
 Bireclinata -
Climacograptus typicalis Hall 1865 climacograptid
 Dendroidea -
Ptilograptus sp. graptolite
Ophiuroidea
 Oegophiurida - Protasteridae
"Taeniaster sp." = Taeniaster, "Protasterina maximus" = Taeniaster
"Taeniaster sp." = Taeniaster Billings 1858 brittle star
"Protasterina maximus" = Taeniaster brittle star
Phragmactis
  - Phragmactinidae
Phragmactis sp. Spencer 1940
probably Swataria derstleri: Blake named that genus in 2014 based on type material from a nearby locality. (PJW)
Asteroidea
  - Hudsonasteridae
"Mesopalaeaster cf. lancolatus" = Hudsonaster
"Mesopalaeaster cf. lancolatus" = Hudsonaster sea star
  -
Promopalaeaster bellulus Schuchert 1915 sea star
 Platyasterida - Urasterellidae
Schuchertia laxata Schuchert 1915 sea star
Urasterella pulchella Billings 1857 sea star
Stylophora
 Mitrata -
Ateleocystites huxleyi Billings 1858
Crinoidea
  -
Crinoidea indet. Miller 1821 Sea lily
undetermined root-type holdfast [originally entered as "crinoid indet."]
 Myelodactylida - Iocrinidae
Iocrinus subcrassus Meek and Worthen 1865 Sea lily
 Homocrinida - Homocrinidae
Ectenocrinus simplex Hall 1847 Sea lily
 Inadunata - Cincinnaticrinidae
Cincinnaticrinus sp. Warn and Strimple 1977 Sea lily
or Heterocrinus sp.
 Dendrocrinida - Merocrinidae
Merocrinidae indet. Miller 1890 Sea lily
originally entered as "merocrinoid indet."
 Monobathrida - Glyptocrinidae
Glyptocrinus sp. Hall 1847 Sea lily
  -
Lichenocrinus sp. Hall 1866 Sea lily
unclassified
  -
Porifera indet. Grant 1836
Hydrozoa
 Hydroida -
Scyphozoa
 Conulariida - Conulariidae
Dasycladophyceae
 Dasycladales - Dasycladaceae
Dasycladacea indet. Radoicic 1969