Abbey Wood (Eocene of the United Kingdom)

Also known as The Sandpit, Lessness Shell Bed, Blackheath Beds

Where: England, United Kingdom (51.4° N, 0.2° E: paleocoordinates 46.9° N, 2.3° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Abbey Wood Member (Blackheath Beds Formation), Ypresian (56.0 - 47.8 Ma)

• Blackheath Beds is an informal formation name. Lessness Shell Bed (Sparnacian) is within the lower sandy Abbey Wood Member of the Blackheath Beds.

•JA: assigned to the early Ypresian and Hooker zone PE III by Hooker 2007

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; sandstone

• from the lower sandy member

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, chemical, sieve,

• Wrigley cites Mr. St. John Marriott (1925) as the first to publish on this locality in "British Woodlands as illustrated by Lessness Abbey Woods", which I couldn't get my hands on

Primary reference: A. Wrigley. 1931. The Lower Eocene Mollusca of Abbey Wood and of High Halstow. The Vertebrate Faunas of the English Eocene 1:110-112 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 38868: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Erin Leckey on 11.05.2004, edited by John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Philip Mannion and Juan Benito Moreno

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Cooper doesn't specify the level at Abbey Wood from which his fossils were found. He calls the unit London Clay and gives the age as Sparnacian-Ypresian, based on the fossils.
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea sp. Linnaeus 1758 oyster
fragmentary, "several indubitable pearls have been found. These probably originated in oysters rather than in Pinnae which are not known at this horizon.
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
"Modiola sp." = Modiolus
"Modiola sp." = Modiolus Lamarck 1801 mussel
rare
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula morrisi clam
common
Corbulomya antiqua clam
common
 Pholadida - Pholadidae
Barnea levesquei clam
rare
 Pholadida - Teredinidae
Teredo sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Cyrenidae
Cyrena cuneiformis clam
abundant (in thousands)
Cyrena tellinella clam
abundant (in thousands)
 Cardiida - Mactridae
"Mactra semisulcata" = Spisula semisulcata
"Mactra semisulcata" = Spisula semisulcata Lamarck 1805 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Dosiniopsis bellovacensis" = Dosiniopsis bellovacina
"Dosiniopsis bellovacensis" = Dosiniopsis bellovacina Deshayes 1825 venus clam
rare
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Protocardium plumsteadianum" = Nemocardium plumsteadianum
"Protocardium plumsteadianum" = Nemocardium plumsteadianum Sowerby 1813 cockle
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula fragilis" = Nucula (Nucula) fragilis
"Nucula fragilis" = Nucula (Nucula) fragilis Deshayes 1829 nut clam
common
Gastropoda
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
"Epitonium cf. stueri" = Cirsotrema (Gyroscala) stueri, Acirsa sp.
"Epitonium cf. stueri" = Cirsotrema (Gyroscala) stueri de Boury 1890 wentletrap
rare
Acirsa sp. Mörch 1857 wentletrap
rare and corroded
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Murex abbatiae murex snail
rare
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Hemipleurotoma spp." = Gemmula
"Hemipleurotoma spp." = Gemmula Weinkauff 1875 turrid
3 species, rare
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra plicatula" = Mirula plicatula
"Terebra plicatula" = Mirula plicatula Lamarck 1803 auger snail
common
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica abducta, "Natica glaucinoides" = Euspira glaucinoides
Natica abducta moon snail
common
"Natica glaucinoides" = Euspira glaucinoides Sowerby 1812 moon snail
common
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Calyptraea sp. Lamarck 1799 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Thiaridae
"Bayania" triticea snail
common
 Sorbeoconcha - Melanopsidae
Melanopsis buccinoidea snail
abundant (in thousands)
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
"Tympanotonus funatus" = Cerithium (Tympanotonus)
"Tympanotonus funatus" = Cerithium (Tympanotonus) cerith snail
common
 Sorbeoconcha - Pachychilidae
 Heterostropha - Acteonidae
Tornatellaea sp., "Actaeon cf. granum" = Acteon
Tornatellaea sp. Conrad 1860 snail
one imperfect example
"Actaeon cf. granum" = Acteon snail
one corroded specimen
 Heterostropha - Ringiculidae
 Basommatophora - Planorbidae
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
Theodoxus globulus snail
common
Theodoxus subornatus snail
common
Nerita semilugubris snail
rare
 Pyramidelloidea - Pyramidellidae
Chondrichthyes
 Euselachii -
Myliobatiformes indet.7 Compagno 1973 stingray
"rayid"
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Lamnidae indet.7 Müller and Henle 1838 mackerel shark
Actinopteri
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser sp.7 Linnaeus 1758 sturgeon
 Teleostei -
Teleostei indet.7
2 species
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionyx silvestris n. sp.10 Walker and Moody 1974 softshell turtle
almost complete skull
Mammalia
 Primates - Omomyidae
Melaneremia bryanti n. gen. n. sp.4
Melaneremia bryanti n. gen. n. sp.4 Hooker 2007 tarsier
NHMUK M60001 - holotype; Teilhardina sp. of Hooker 1980, Nannopithex sp. of Collinson and Hooker 1987, and Omomyidae indet. of Hooker 1998
 Primates - Plesiadapidae
Platychoerops sp.5 Charlesworth 1855 primate
NHMUK M45623
 Primates - Paromomyidae
Arcius hookeri n. sp.8 López-Torres and Silcox 2018 primate
NHMUK M44945
 Primates - Notharctidae
"Protoadapis eppsi n. sp." = Cantius eppsi1
"Protoadapis eppsi n. sp." = Cantius eppsi1 Cooper 1932 primate
NHMUK M13773 - type; referred material: NHMUK M15145, 60055, 29641, 63691, 45637, 60007, 60022, 51750, 15147, 29639, 60795, 45616, 29753, 45491, 29638, 60799 and 45555
 Cimolesta - Coryphodontidae
Coryphodon eocaenicus1 Malaquin 1899 pantodont
NHMUK M13775, 83063, 29232, 44887, 29234, 83056, 34863, 21819, 44911, 20229, 29746, 26788, 29748, 63572, 15144, 29749 and 44981
 Cimolesta - Palaeoryctidae
Didelphodontinae indet.3 Simpson 1927 eutherian
 Cimolesta - Pantolestidae
Palaeosinopa cf. osborni5 eutherian
NHMUK M29761, 60665
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
? Leptictidae indet.5 Gill 1872 eutherian
NHMUK M45247
 Tribosphenida - Adapisoriculidae
? Remiculus sp.5 Russell 1964 placental
NHMUK M60003
 Glires -
Rodentia indet.1 rodent
NHMUK M44899
 Rodentia -
Pseudoparamys sp.5 Michaux 1964 rodent
NHMUK M44950, 44938, 45494 and 45640
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Pantrogna cf. russelli5 Michaux 1964 rodent
NHMUK M26898 and 45643
? Sparnacomys sp.5 Hartenberger 1971 rodent
NHMUK M44909
Sparnacomys georgei n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 rodent
NHMUK M29364 - type; paratype: NHMUK M26899; previously identified as Microparamys
Ailuravinae indet.5 Michaux 1968 rodent
NHMUK M44937
Ailuravus mitchelli n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 rodent
NHMUK M31909 - type; paratyps: NHMUK M45258, 63195, 45493, 44905, 45390 and 44892
cf. Meldimys sp.5 Michaux 1968 rodent
NHMUK M45391
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hyracotherium aff. vulpiceps" = Pliolophus vulpiceps3, Pliolophus barnesi n. sp.5
"Hyracotherium aff. vulpiceps" = Pliolophus vulpiceps3 Owen 1858 horse
Pliolophus barnesi n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 horse
author notes that this is being described elsewhere
 Tribosphenida - Nyctitheriidae
Leptacodon sp.5 Matthew and Granger 1921 placental
NHMUK M50384
? Wyonycteris sp.5 Gingerich 1987 placental
NHMUK M63198
Wyonycteris richardi5 Smith 1995 placental
NHMUK M44900, 44901 and 83068
 Chiroptera -
Chiroptera indet.5 Blumenbach 1779 bat
NHMUK M60045
 Chiroptera - Emballonuridae
"? Adapisorex anglicus n. sp." = Eppsinycteris anglica1, "Eppsinycteris anglica n. gen. n. sp." = Eppsinycteris anglica5
"? Adapisorex anglicus n. sp." = Eppsinycteris anglica1 Cooper 1932 sac-winged bat
n. sp., portion of right maxilla
"Eppsinycteris anglica n. gen. n. sp." = Eppsinycteris anglica5 Cooper 1932 sac-winged bat
NHMUK M13776 - holotye
 Ferae -
Creodonta indet.1 Cope 1875 creodont
 Ferae - Viverravidae
Viverravus lawsoni n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 placental
NHMUK M51700 - type; paratypes: NHMUK 45487, 63196 and 44930
 Ferae -
Uintacyon cf. rudis5 Rose 1981 placental
NHMUK M26246
 Carnivora - Miacidae
Miacis rundlei n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 carnivoran
NHMUK M26248 - type; paratypes: NHMUK M44902, 29725, 60008, 29726, 44890, 44955, 44974, 26785, 60081, 44962 and 45245; referred material: NHMUK M45554
 Tribosphenida - Pseudorhyncocyonidae
Leptictidium prouti n. sp.6 Hooker 2013 placental
NHMUK.M65382 - type (LM3)
Fordonia lawsoni6 Hooker 2013 placental
NHMUK.M45247 (LP3)
 Macroscelidea - Amphilemuridae
? Amphilemuridae indet.5 Hill 1953 elephant shrew
NHMUK M45500 and 45614
Neomatronella gassoni n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 elephant shrew
NHMUK M60070 - type; paratypes: NHMUK M44953, 29365 and 51701; referred material: NHMUK M44952
Macrocranion sp.5 Weitzel 1949 elephant shrew
NHMUK M44893, 44904, 51702, 45618, 44903, 44956 and 60058
 Trogontia - Esthonychidae
Plesiesthonyx minimus5 Baudry 1992 tillodont
NHMUK M34580, 29363 and 26787
 Tribosphenida - Arctocyonidae
Arctocyonides jefferyi n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 condylarth
NHMUK M45650 - type; paratypes: NHMUK M31876, 29235 and 51526
 Ungulata - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus wardi n. sp.2, Lessnessina packmani n. gen. n. sp.2
Hyopsodus wardi n. sp.2 Hooker 1979 condylarth
jaw fragments and isolated teeth
Lessnessina packmani n. gen. n. sp.2 Hooker 1979 condylarth
left maxilla with P3-M3 and isolated teeth
 Ungulata - Diacodexeidae
Diacodexis morrisi n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 even-toed ungulate
NHMUK M83071 - type; paratypes: NHMUK M44943, 83065, 15141, 44919 and 60060; referred material: NHMUK M45485, 45647, 60794, 45515, 45619, 63702, 26897, 45638, 63697 and 63703
 Ungulata - Phenacodontidae
Phenacodus lemoinei5 condylarth
NHMUK M44926, 45661, 29723 and 29724
 Insectivora -
Insectivora indet.1 Bowdich 1821 insectivoran
 Insectivora - Apatemyidae
Apatemys prouti n. sp.5 Hooker 2010 insectivoran
NHMUK M51704 - type; paratypes: NHMUK M44880, 44948 and 13772
Eochiromys ? sp.3 Teilhard de Chardin 1927 insectivoran
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
Pachyaena cf. ossifraga5 Cope 1874 condylarth
NHMUK M44984
 Hyaenodonta - Hyaenodontidae
Prototomus girardoti9 Smith and Smith 2001 eutherian
NHMUK M45651, 20212 and 63696
Prototomus minimus9 Smith and Smith 2001 eutherian
NHMUK M44936 and 45672
 Hyaenodonta -
Didelphodus sp.5 Cope 1882 eutherian
NHMUK M60071, 26140, 29733, 15124 and 44954
 Theriiformes - Peradectidae
Peradectes sp.5 Matthew and Granger 1921 metatherian
NHMUK M44991
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Amphiperatherium "sp. 1"5 Filhol 1879 marsupial
NHMUK M60004, 63695, 60005, 44963; previously listed as Amphiperatherium brabantense
Amphiperatherium "sp. 2"5 Filhol 1879 marsupial
NHMUK M60002; previously listed as Amphiperatherium maximum
 Multituberculata - Neoplagiaulacidae
Ectypodus cf. tardus5, "Charlesmooria childei n. gen. n. sp." = Ectypodus childei7
Ectypodus cf. tardus5 Jepsen 1940 multituberculate
NHMUK M60309
"Charlesmooria childei n. gen. n. sp." = Ectypodus childei7 Kühne 1969 multituberculate
NHMUK M26617 - type; referred material: M15131
Tritonidea
  -
Tritonidea lata
common and very variable
Tritonidea sp. Sowerby 1842
rare
 Oxyaenodonta - Oxyaenidae
Palaeonictis gigantea5 de Blainville 1842
NHMUK M44983, 15125, 45517, 63811, 60024, 15128, 60092, 29410, 60026, 29233, 29359
Oxyaena gulo5 Matthew and Granger 1915
NHMUK 13778, 15128 and 31877