Monte Bolca (Pesciara) (Eocene of Italy)

Where: Italy (45.6° N, 11.2° E: paleocoordinates 39.3° N, 9.6° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Lutetian (47.8 - 41.3 Ma)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lagoonal or restricted shallow subtidal; shelly/skeletal limestone

• "The fossil-bearing section consits of several calcareous units (Figure 20.2). Exceptionally well preserved fossils are derived from units of laminated sheet limestones unlain by reefal limestones. Fish and plant fossils can be found at five levels. The beds containing fish and plant fossils show a varved structure in which relatively thick biomicritic laminae alternate in a regular pattern with very thin micritic laminae, which are homogenous and slightly clayey. The thicker biomicritic laminae contain silt-sized particles and foraminifera, ostracods, molluscs, and small thin-shelled gastropods. These biomicritic laminae are gradational with the micritic laminae, producing a graded bedding texture for each pair of laminae. Finely disseminated pyrite and bitumen can be found in these laminated beds. (pg. 369)"

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: mold/impression, soft parts

Collection methods: quarrying, mechanical,

Primary reference: C. M. Tang. 2002. Monte Bolca: An Eocene fishbowl. Exceptional fossil preservation, a unqiue view on the evolution of marine life 365-377 [J. Head/J. Head]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 55239: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 30.09.2005, edited by Mark Uhen and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• 250+ species of marine fish not listed in article
unclassified
  -
Chondrichthyes
 Euselachii - Galeidae
Pseudogaleus voltai n. gen. n. sp.4
Pseudogaleus voltai n. gen. n. sp.4 Jaekel 1894 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
"Trygon dezignii" = Dasyatis4, "Trygon muricata" = Trygon muricatus4
"Trygon dezignii" = Dasyatis4 whiptail stingray
"Trygon muricata" = Trygon muricatus4 Volta 1796 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Platyrhinidae
Platyrhina gigantea4 de Blainville 1818 stingray
Platyrhina egertoni4 de Zigno 1878 stingray
Platyrhina bolcensis4 Heckel 1851 stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Promyliobatis gazolae n. gen. n. sp.4
Promyliobatis gazolae n. gen. n. sp.4 de Zigno 1885 eagle ray
 Rajiformes -
 Rajiformes - Rhinobatidae
Rhinobatus primaerus4, "Rhinobatus dezignii" = Rhinobatus dezignoi4
"Rhinobatus dezignii" = Rhinobatus dezignoi4 Heckel 1853 guitarfish
 Torpediniformes - Narcinidae
Narcine molini n. sp.4 Jaekel 1894 numbfish
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Alopiopsis plejodon4 Lioy 1865 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Scyliorhinidae
Galeus cuvieri n. sp.4 Agassiz 1835 cat shark
Actinopteri
 Lampridiformes - Bajaichthyidae
Bajaichthys elegans8 Sorbini 1983
 Scombriformes - Scombridae
Thynnus bolcensis11, "Orcynus latior n. sp." = Thunnus latior1, "Orcynus lanceolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Thunnus lanceolatus1
Thynnus bolcensis11 Agassiz 1835
"Orcynus latior n. sp." = Thunnus latior1 Agassiz 1843
"Orcynus lanceolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Thunnus lanceolatus1 Agassiz 1843
 Acanthuriformes - Acanthuridae
Tauichthys padremenini n. gen. n. sp.10 Tyler 1999
Pesciarichthys punctatus n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Eorandallius elegans n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Eorandallius rectifrons n. gen.2 Agassiz 1842
Gazolaichthys vestenanovae n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Acanthurus gaudryi2 de Zigno 1887
Proacanthurus tenuis n. gen.2 Agassiz 1842
Proacanthurus bonatoi n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Proacanthurus ovalis2 Agassiz 1842
Proacanthurus elongatus n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Sorbinithurus sorbinii n. gen. n. sp.10 Tyler 1999
Metaspisurus emmanueli n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Tylerichthys nuchalis2 Agassiz 1842
Tylerichthys milani n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Metacanthurus veronensis n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Protozebrasoma bloti n. gen. n. sp.9 Sorbini and Tyler 1998
Acanthuroides massalongoi n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
Lehmanichthys lessiniensis n. gen. n. sp.2 Blot and Tyler 1990
 Acanthomorphata - Caproidae
Antigonia veronensis7 Sorbini 1983
 Clupeiformes - Clupeoidei
Eoalosa janvieri n. gen. n. sp.5
Eoalosa janvieri n. gen. n. sp.5 Marrama` and Carnevale 2018 sunrise or dawn shad
Reptilia
 Squamata - Palaeophiidae
Archaeophis proavus n. gen. n. sp.6
Archaeophis proavus n. gen. n. sp.6 Massalongo 1859 snake
 Squamata - Anomalophidae
"Archaeophis bolcensis n. gen. n. sp." = Anomalophis bolcensis6
"Archaeophis bolcensis n. gen. n. sp." = Anomalophis bolcensis6 Auffenberg 1959 snake
Liliopsida
 Alismatales - Alismatidae
Posidocea frickingeri n. gen. n. sp.3
Posidocea frickingeri n. gen. n. sp.3