Buluk (Miocene of Kenya)

Where: Kenya (4.3° N, 36.6° E: paleocoordinates 3.0° N, 34.1° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Buluk Member (Bakate Formation), Early/Lower Miocene (23.0 - 16.0 Ma)

• "K/Ar dates on a basalt just above the fossiliferous sediments show that the fossils are older than 17.2 Myr" (Leakey and Walker 1985); fossils are from about 15 m within the ~50 m thick Buluk Member according to McDougall and Watkins 1985, who report a series of dates, of which one of 17.2 +/- 0.2 Ma for an immediately overlying basalt is favored

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coarse channel fill; claystone and coarse-grained sandstone

• "fossils are found almost exclusively in the channel deposits and are often associated with silicified wood"
• "coarse silt" (Harris and Watkins 1974) or "claystones with coarse sandstone and conglomerate channel fills" (Leakey and Walker 1985)

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: includes significant new collections made in 1983 and not previously reported

Primary reference: J. M. Harris and R. Watkins. 1974. New early Miocene vertebrate locality near Lake Rudolf, Kenya. Nature 252:576-577 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 70808: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 08.04.2007, edited by Carlos Jaramillo

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

cf. Anonaspermum sp.2
"similar to" this genus
 Siluriformes - Clariidae
Clariidae indet.2 Bonaparte 1846 airbreathing catfish
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet.2 Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pelomedusidae
Pelomedusidae indet.2 Cope 1868 sideneck turtle
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus cf. niloticus2 Laurenti 1768 Nile crocodile
 Crocodylia -
Tomistoma sp.2 Müller 1846 false gharial
 Primates - Victoriapithecidae
Noropithecus bulukensis3 Miller et al. 2009 monkey
 Primates -
Hominoidea indet.1 Gray 1825 ape
 Primates - Hominidae
 Glires -
Rodentia indet.2 Savage 1951 rodent
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Chilotheridium pattersoni2 Hooijer 1971 rhinoceros
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyoninae indet.2 Trouessart 1885 bear-dog
"very large"
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotheriidae indet.2 Hay 1922 gomphothere
said to be a new genus
Gomphotherium cf. angustidens2 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Deinotheriidae
Prodeinotherium hobleyi Andrews 1911 deinothere
 Hyracoidea - Titanohyracidae
"Megalohyrax championi" = Afrohyrax championi
"Megalohyrax championi" = Afrohyrax championi Arambourg 1933 hyrax
 Hyaenodonta - Hyainailouridae
Hyainailouros nyanzae2 Savage 1965 eutherian
 Artiodactyla - Suidae
Lopholistriodon cf. moruoroti2 Wilkinson 1976 pig
Libycochoerus massai2 Arambourg 1961 pig
 Artiodactyla - Sanitheriidae
Diamantohyus africanus2 Stromer 1926 even-toed ungulate
 Artiodactyla - Anthracotheriidae
"Hyoboops sp." = Sivameryx2
"Hyoboops sp." = Sivameryx2 Lydekker 1883 anthracothere
 Artiodactyla - Tragulidae
Dorcatherium chappuisi2 Arambourg 1933 chevrotain
Dorcatherium pigotti2 Whitworth 1958 chevrotain
 Artiodactyla - Giraffidae
Canthumeryx cf. sirtensis2 Hamilton 1973 giraffe
 Ceratodontiformes - Lepidosirenidae
Protopterus sp.2 Agassiz 1843 african lungfish
Micropithecus clarki
  - Dendropithecidae
cf. Micropithecus clarki2 Fleagle and Simons 1978