Mekran beds (Talar Stage) - North of Talar Gorge (Miocene of Pakistan)

Where: Pakistan (25.3° N, 63.3° E: paleocoordinates 23.4° N, 61.9° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Mekran Formation, Late/Upper Miocene (11.6 - 5.3 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: Overlies the Gaj beds. AGE: Somewhat unclear. Younger than Early Miocene Gaj beds (Aquitanian-Burdigalian), and younger than the Gwadar beds (Pliocene), so probably ranging from Middle to Late Miocene in age. Age will be amended following consideration of taxonomic similarities with Indonesian faunas. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: Base of sandstones.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; poorly lithified sandstone

• ENVIRONMENT: Not stated in text, but presumably shallow shelf siliciclastic.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Sandstone. LITHIFICATION: Poorly-lithified, based on figured specimens.

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by Vredenburg

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTORS: Multiple collectors including W. Blanford, Wynne, Hira Lal, Ram Singh, and Noetling (staff of Geological Survey of India) during the early 1900's. REPOSITORY: Geological Survey of India, with voucher specimens possibly at the BMNH.

Primary reference: E. Vredenburg. 1925. Description of Mollusca from the post-Eocene Tertiary formation of north-western India: Cephalopoda, Opisthobranchiata, Siphonostomata. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 50(1):1-350 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 77133: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 21.12.2007

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for gastropoda, bivalvia, and scaphopoda. NOMENCLATURE: Antiquated, but from an authoritative publication, with use of species and subgenus resolution assignments. Nomenclature can be updated through reference to Harzhauser and Swarko publications.
 Sorbeoconcha - Potamididae
Potamides (Cerithidea) fluviatilis Potiez and Michaud 1838 horn snail
"Potamides (Cerithidea) jenkinsi" = Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) jenkinsi Martin 1879 horn snail
Terebralia sublignitarum Vredenburg 1928 horn snail
Terebralia miosulcata Vredenburg 1928 horn snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Batillariidae
Batillaria mekranica Vredenburg 1928 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Turritella subulata" = Haustator subulata Martin 1884 turret shell
Protoma renevieri d'Archiac and Haime 1854 turret shell
Protoma retrodilatatum Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
Turritella assimilis Sowerby 1840 turret shell
"Turritella angulata" = Kapalmerella ranikoti Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Strombidae
"Rostellaria curta" = Tibia curta, Strombus mekranicus
"Rostellaria curta" = Tibia curta Sowerby 1842 true conch
Strombus mekranicus Vredenburg 1925 conch
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra (Cancilla) flammea Quoy 1832 mitre shell
Mitra inquinata Reeve 1844 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra (Myurella) aspera Hinds 1843 auger snail
Terebra gedrosiana Vredenburg 1925 auger snail
Terebra mekranica Vredenburg 1925 auger snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Leptoconus) amadis, "Conus (Leptoconus) scalaris" = Conus scalaris, Conus (Lithoconus) djarianensis, "Conus (Leptoconus) vimineus" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) vimineus
Conus (Leptoconus) amadis Martini 1773 cone shell
"Conus (Leptoconus) scalaris" = Conus scalaris Martin 1879 cone shell
Conus (Lithoconus) djarianensis Martin 1895 cone shell
"Conus (Leptoconus) vimineus" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) vimineus Reeve 1849 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Borsoniidae
Bathytoma cataphracta Brocchi 1814 snail
SUBSPECIES: B. cataphracta gedrosiana
"Surcula tuberculata" = Asthenotoma tuberculata Gray 1839 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turbinellidae
Turbinella mekranica Vredenburg 1925 snail
Turbinella episoma Michelotti 1861 snail
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva (Neocylindrus) mustelina Lamarck 1810 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Trigonostoma crispatum Sowerby 1855 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
"Tritonidea (Cantharus) erythrostoma" = Cantharus erythrostoma Reeve 1849 true whelk
Hindsia mekranica Vredenburg 1925 true whelk
Siphonalia (Kelletia) mekranica Vredenburg 1925 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Pirula ficus Gmelin 1791 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Clavilithes verbeeki" = Mancorus verbeeki, "Lathyrus duplicatus" = Latirus duplicatus
"Clavilithes verbeeki" = Mancorus verbeeki Martin 1895 snail
"Lathyrus duplicatus" = Latirus duplicatus Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Purpura (Stramonita) angulata Dujardin 1837 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Athleta (Volutospina) mekranica Vredenburg 1925 volute
 Sorbeoconcha - Cassidae
Cassidea (Semicassis) mekranica Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ranellidae
"Ranella bitubercularis" = Gyrineum bituberculare
"Ranella bitubercularis" = Gyrineum bituberculare Lamarck 1816 triton shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Bursidae
"Ranella (Bufonaria) spinosa" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) echinata
"Ranella (Bufonaria) spinosa" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) echinata Link 1807 frog shell
 Nautilida - Nautilidae
Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus 1758 pearly nautilus
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula mekranica Vredenburg 1928 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Venus (Omphaloclathrum) mekranica" = Venus mekranica, Dosinia pseudoargus, "Dosinia peralta" = Dosinia (Dosinia) peralta, "Dosinia subpenicillata" = Dosina subpenicillata, Tapes (Callistotapes) pseudoliratus, "Venus (Clementia) papyracea" = Clementia (Clementia) papyracea, "Cytherea (Callista) pseudoumbonella" = Macrocallista (Costacallista) pseudoumbonella
"Venus (Omphaloclathrum) mekranica" = Venus mekranica Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
Dosinia pseudoargus d'Archiac and Haime 1853 venus clam
"Dosinia peralta" = Dosinia (Dosinia) peralta Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
"Dosinia subpenicillata" = Dosina subpenicillata Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
Tapes (Callistotapes) pseudoliratus Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
"Venus (Clementia) papyracea" = Clementia (Clementia) papyracea Gray 1825 venus clam
"Cytherea (Callista) pseudoumbonella" = Macrocallista (Costacallista) pseudoumbonella Vredenburg 1928 venus clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium (Discors) triforme" = Discors triforme
"Cardium (Discors) triforme" = Discors triforme Sowerby 1840 cockle
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele mekranica Vredenburg 1928 clam
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Arca rhombea" = Scapharca (Cunearca) rhombea Born 1778 ark
Arca clathrata Reeve 1844 ark
SUBSPECIES: Arca clathrata burnesi
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Arca decussata" = Glycymeris decussata
"Arca decussata" = Glycymeris decussata Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea digitalina" = Cubitostrea digitalina Eichwald 1830 oyster
SUBSPECIES: O. digitalina rholfsii
Ostrea petrosa Fuchs 1879 oyster
Ostrea pseudodigitalina Fuchs 1879 oyster