Bhagothoro Hill (Oligocene of Pakistan)

Where: Pakistan (26.4° N, 67.9° E: paleocoordinates 16.9° N, 65.9° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Nari Formation, Rupelian (33.9 - 28.1 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: Basal beds of regional succession, and is overlain by the Gaj beds (Early Miocene). From the Lower Nari. AGE: Early Oligocene, based on similarity with European faunas of Lattofian and Stampian age. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: Unknown position within unit.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deep subtidal ramp; poorly lithified limestone

• ENVIRONMENT: Fairly shallow, as larger foraminifera occur. In the Kirthar Range, the lithological description supports an deep subtidal environment, given the interbedding of cross-stratified or ripple-laminated sandstone with shale.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: "Yellow and brown limestones" in Blanford (1879). Formation in the Kirthar Range to the north described as "cross-stratified, ripple-laminated, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone interbedded with minor amounts of shale. Limestone containing marine fossils and interbedded with shale and sandstone is commonly present in the lower part of the formation." LITHIFICATION: Poorly-lithified, based on figured specimens.

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by Vredenburg

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTORS: Multiple collectors including W. Blanford, Wynne, Hira Lal, Ram Singh, and Noetling (staff of Geological Survey of India) during the early 1900's. REPOSITORY: Geological Survey of India, with voucher specimens possibly at the BMNH.

Primary reference: E. Vredenburg. 1925. Description of Mollusca from the post-Eocene Tertiary formation of north-western India: Cephalopoda, Opisthobranchiata, Siphonostomata. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 50(1):1-350 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 77159: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 21.12.2007

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for gastropoda, bivalvia, and scaphopoda. NOMENCLATURE: Antiquated, but from an authoritative publication, with use of species and subgenus resolution assignments. Nomenclature can be updated through reference to Harzhauser and Swarko publications.
Bivalvia
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Arca semitorta" = Trisidos semitorta3 Lamarck 1819 clam
Arca submultiformis3 Vredenburg 1928 ark
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Pecten (Amussiopecten) labadyei3 d'Archaic and Haime 1853 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
"Placuna (Indoplacuna) sindiensis" = Indoplacuna sindiensis3
"Placuna (Indoplacuna) sindiensis" = Indoplacuna sindiensis3 Vredenburg 1923 scallop
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea fraasi3 Mayer-Eymar 1888 oyster
Ostrea gajensis3 Vredenburg 1928 oyster
Ostrea protoimbricata3 Vredenburg 1928 oyster
Ostrea cubitus3 Deshayes 1832 oyster
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassatella sulcata3 Solander 1866 clam
Crassatella carcarensis3 Michelotti 1847 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cardita (Venericardia) laurae3 Brongniart 1823 clam
Cardita arduini3 Brongniart 1823 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula carinata3 Dujardin 1837 clam
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
Diplodonta incerta3 d'Archiac 1850 clam
SUBSPECIES: Diplodonta incerta narica
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella3, "Venus (Omphaloclathrum) puerpera" = Periglypta puerpera3, "Cytherea (Pitar) porrecta" = Pitar porrecta3, "Cytherea (Callista) spendida" = Callista3
Venus (Ventricola) multilamella3 Lamarck 1818 venus clam
"Venus (Omphaloclathrum) puerpera" = Periglypta puerpera3 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
SUBSPECIES: Venus (Omphaloclathrum) puerpera aglaurae
"Cytherea (Pitar) porrecta" = Pitar porrecta3 Koenen 1894 venus clam
"Cytherea (Callista) spendida" = Callista3 venus clam
 Cardiida - Solecurtidae
Solenocurtus sindiensis3 Vredenburg 1928 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
Cardium (Nemocardium) bhagothorense3 Vredenburg 1928 cockle
Cardium (Trachycardium) sindiense3 Vredenburg 1928 cockle
"Cardium (Discors) naricum" = Nemocardium (Discors) naricum3 Vredenburg 1928 cockle
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
Nucula narica3 Vredenburg 1928 nut clam
Gastropoda
 Cephalaspidea - Cylichnidae
Scaphander oligoturritus Sacco 1897 snail
 Architaenioglossa - Ampullinidae
"Ampullina (Globularia) gibberosa" = Globularia gibberosa3, "Ampullospira (Euspirocrommium) oweni" = Pachycrommium oweni3
"Ampullina (Globularia) gibberosa" = Globularia gibberosa3 Grateloup 1847 snail
"Ampullospira (Euspirocrommium) oweni" = Pachycrommium oweni3 d'Archiac and Haime 1854 snail
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Ancilla (Sparella) indica" = Ancilla indica, Olivella elegantula
"Ancilla (Sparella) indica" = Ancilla indica Vredenburg 1925 olive snail
Olivella elegantula Rovereto 1900 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Cominella annandalei Vredenburg 1925 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Hindsia nivea" = Nassaria nivea
"Hindsia nivea" = Nassaria nivea Gmelin 1790 snail
SUBSPECIES: Hindsia nivea narica and Hindsia nivea bhagothorensis
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Streptochetus pseudowaelii, "Fusus (Aptyxis) reticulatus" = Aptyxis reticulatus, "Lathyrus sindiensis" = Latirus sindiensis, Euthriofusus subregularis
Streptochetus pseudowaelii Vredenburg 1925 snail
"Fusus (Aptyxis) reticulatus" = Aptyxis reticulatus Vredenburg 1925 snail
"Lathyrus sindiensis" = Latirus sindiensis Vredenburg 1921 snail
Euthriofusus subregularis d'Archiac and Haime 1854 snail
INCLUDES: Euthriofusus subregularis narica
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
Trigonostoma indicum Vredenburg 1925 snail
Uxia narica Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Marginella (Glabella) narica Vredenburg 1925 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Athleta (Volutospina) sindiensis Vredenburg 1925 volute
Lyria anceps Michelotti 1861 volute
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Murex (Muricantha) ighinae" = Muricantha ighinae, Murex (Haustellum) naricus
"Murex (Muricantha) ighinae" = Muricantha ighinae Bellardi 1872 murex snail
Murex (Haustellum) naricus Vredenburg 1925 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Harpidae
"Harpa (Eocithara) narica" = Eocithara narica
"Harpa (Eocithara) narica" = Eocithara narica Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
Hemipleurotoma narica2 Vredenburg 1925 turrid
SUBSPECIES: Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) yenanensis narica
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus (Lithoconus) ineditus Michelotti 1861 cone shell
Conorbis bhagothorensis2 Vredenburg 1925 cone shell
Conorbis sindiensis2 Vredenburg 1925 cone shell
SUBSPECIES: Conorbis dormitor sindiensis and Conorbis dormitor bhagothorensis
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra perturrita1 Sacco 1891 auger snail
SUBSPECIES: Terebra subtessellata oligocenica
 Stromboidea - Rostellariidae
"Rostellaria sindiensis" = Varicospira sindiensis
"Rostellaria sindiensis" = Varicospira sindiensis Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Stromboidea - Seraphsidae
"Terebellum (Seraphs) naricum" = Seraphs naricus
"Terebellum (Seraphs) naricum" = Seraphs naricus Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
"Pirula condita" = Ficus condita
"Pirula condita" = Ficus condita Brongniart 1823 fig shell
 Vanikoroidea - Hipponicidae
Hipponyx cornucopae3 Lamarck 1802 hoof shell
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Sigaretus aquensis" = Sinum aquensis3
"Sigaretus aquensis" = Sinum aquensis3 Recluz 1843 moon snail
SUBSPECIES: Sigaretus aquensis praecedens
 Cypraeoidea - Eocypraeidae
"Cypraea (Bernayia) subexcisa" = Apiocypraea subexcisa
"Cypraea (Bernayia) subexcisa" = Apiocypraea subexcisa Braun 1840 snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
Cypraea (Erosaria) sindiensis Vredenburg 1925 cowry
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Tugurium subextensum3 d'Orbigny 1852 carrier shell
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Tritonium (Sassia) indicum" = Sassia indica, Ranella tubercularis
"Tritonium (Sassia) indicum" = Sassia indica Vredenburg 1925 triton shell
Ranella tubercularis Risso 1826 triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Personidae
Distorsio decipiens2 Reeve 1844 snail
SUBSPECIES: Persona reticulata subclathrata
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
"Cassidea mamillaris" = Cassis mamillaris, "Cassidea (Semicassis) oligocatlantica" = Semicassis
"Cassidea mamillaris" = Cassis mamillaris Grateloup 1847 snail
SUBSPECIES: Cassidea mamillaris nummultiphila
"Cassidea (Semicassis) oligocatlantica" = Semicassis snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella pseudotethis3 Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
Turritella bhagothorensis3 Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
Turritella narica3 Vredenburg 1928 turret shell
SUBSPECIES: Turritella narica baluchistanensis
"Turritella desmarestina" = Turritella (Peyrotia) desmarestina3 Basterot 1825 turret shell
"Turritella conofasciata" = Turritella (Haustator) conofaciata3 Sacco 1895 turret shell
"Turritella asperula" = Turritella (Haustator) asperula3 Brogniart 1823 turret shell
Protoma deshayesi3 d'Archiac 1850 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
"Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) sindiense" = Cerithium sindiense3, "Cerithium (Chondrocerithium) bhagothorense" = Cerithium bhagothorense3, Tympanotomus laevis3, Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) tricingularum3, Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) ighinai3, "Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) perlamellosum" = Ptychocerithium perlamellosum3, Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) haimei3, "Cerithium naricum" = Bellatara narica
"Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) sindiense" = Cerithium sindiense3 Vredenburg 1928 cerith snail
"Cerithium (Chondrocerithium) bhagothorense" = Cerithium bhagothorense3 Vredenburg 1928 cerith snail
Tympanotomus laevis3 Vredenburg 1928 cerith snail
Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) ighinai3 Michelotti 1861 cerith snail
"Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) perlamellosum" = Ptychocerithium perlamellosum3 Vredenburg 1928 cerith snail
Cerithium (Ptychocerithium) haimei3 Vredenburg 1928 cerith snail
"Cerithium naricum" = Bellatara narica Vredenburg 1925 cerith snail
 Tectibranchia - Akeridae
"Acera narica" = Akera narica
"Acera narica" = Akera narica Vredenburg 1925 snail
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
"Solarium naricum" = Architectonica narica3
"Solarium naricum" = Architectonica narica3 Vredenburg 1928 sundial
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
"Turbo (Senectus) radiatus" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) radiatus3, "Turbo (Olearia) protocepoides" = Turbo protocepoides3
"Turbo (Senectus) radiatus" = Turbo (Marmarostoma) radiatus3 Gmelin 1791 snail
SUBSPECIES: Turbo (Senectus) radiatus naricus
"Turbo (Olearia) protocepoides" = Turbo protocepoides3 Vredenburg 1928 snail
Cephalopoda
 Nautilida - Aturiidae
Aturia narica Vredenburg 1925 nautiloid