USGS 25715, Kere River, Santo Island (Pleistocene of Vanuatu)

Where: Vanuatu (15.6° S, 167.0° E: paleocoordinates 15.6° S, 166.9° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From an undifferentiated reef limestones. AGE: Pleistocene, on the basis of macrofossil and foraminiferal biostratigraphy, and stratigraphic position. Very well-preserved ahermatypic corals (Flabellum spp.) collected in 2006 from Kere 2 have been dated by the Uranium/Thorium method and established an age of 232 +/- 10 ka. The same species of coral from the overlying deposit of Kere 1 gave an age of 133 +/- 5.5 ka. These reliable benchmarks suggest that the Kere sequence was deposited during the warmer Marine Isotope Stages (also named OIS for "Oxygen Isotope Stage") MIS 7 (Kere 2) and MIS 5 (Kere 1). (Lozouet et al., 2011). STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: The classic Kere Shellbed (Kere 1)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: unlithified, shelly/skeletal, silty, calcareous gravel

• EMVIRONMENT: Not stated, but presumably a shallow marine, carbonate setting.
• LITHOLOGY: It is an unconsolidated (or poorly consolidated) calcareous silty gravel consisting of 50/70% shell fragments. Dissolution and recrystallisation have cemented parts of the deposit (Lozouet et al., 2011). LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, on the basis of prevailing description.

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original aragonite

Collected by T.R. Waller, J. Bolango, W.C. Blow; reposited in the USNM

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTOR: Multiple collectors, including: Waller, Bolango, and Blow. REPOSITORY: USNM.

Primary reference: H. S. Ladd. 1966. Chitons and Gastropods (Haliotidae through Adeorbidae) from Western Pacific Islands. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 531:1-98 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/J. Millet]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 78043: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 25.01.2008, edited by Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COEVERAGE: Representative, but not exhaustive for gastropoda. NOMENCLATURE: An authoritative publication with relatively modern nomenclature, subgenus- and species-level identifications. IDENTIFIER: H. S. Ladd.
 Ptenoglossa - Thaididae
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
 Patellogastropoda - Acmaeidae
 Patellogastropoda - Lottiidae
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
Oliva ispida3 olive snail
"Oliva mustelina" = Oliva (Neocylindrus) mustelina2 Lamarck 1810 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Metula kerensis3 true whelk
Metula santoensis3 true whelk
Metula cf. mitrella3 true whelk
Colubraria maculosa3 true whelk
Colubraria obscura3 true whelk
Colubraria tortuosa3 true whelk
Colubraria rehderi3 true whelk
Phos bakeri3 true whelk
Hindsia sinensis3 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
Nassarius (Alectrion) glans3 Röding 1798 snail
"Nassarius (Alectrion) barsdelli" = Nassarius (Zeuxis) barsdelli3 Ladd 1977 snail
Nassarius (Uzita) verbeeki2 Martin 1895 snail
Nassarius (Zeuxis) dorsatus3 Röding 1798 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Fusinus colus3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
Latirus polygonus3 Gmelin 1791 snail
 Neogastropoda - Cancellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Mitridae
Mitra (Nebularia) contracta3, "Cancilla (Cancilla) isabella" = Mitra (Tiara) isabella3
"Cancilla (Cancilla) isabella" = Mitra (Tiara) isabella3 Swainson 1831 mitre shell
 Neogastropoda - Coralliophilidae
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
 Neogastropoda - Costellariidae
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
"Mancinella aff. bufo" = Purpura bufo3 Lamarck 1822 murex snail
Chicoreus axicornis3 murex snail
"Pterynotus (Naquetia) barclayi" = Chicoreus (Naquetia)3 murex snail
Murex (Murex) pecten3 murex snail
Drupa (Morula) granulata2 Duclos 1832 murex snail
"Latiaxis (Tolema) blowi" = Babelomurex (Babelomurex) blowi3 Ladd 1977 murex snail
"Coralliophila mallicki" = Coralliophila (Coralliophila) mallicki3 Ladd 1977 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Harpidae
"Morum (Cancellomorum) cancellata" = Morum (Oniscidia)3, Harpa major2
"Morum (Cancellomorum) cancellata" = Morum (Oniscidia)3 snail
Harpa major2 snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Lophiotoma (Lophioturris) indica" = Lophiotoma3 turrid
Turris crispa3 turrid
 Neogastropoda -
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus cf. eugrammatus" = Conasprella (Conasprella) eugrammata3 Bartsch and Rehder 1943 cone shell
"Conus orbignyi" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) orbignyi3 Audouin 1831 cone shell
"Conus vimineus" = Conasprella (Fusiconus) vimineus3 Reeve 1849 cone shell
Conus acueliformis3 cone shell
Conus cf. emaciatus3 cone shell
Conus excelsus3 cone shell
Conus geographus3 cone shell
Conus gloriamaris3 cone shell
Conus gracilis3 cone shell
Conus grangeri3 cone shell
Conus gubernator3 cone shell
Conus kimioi3 cone shell
Conus macarae3 cone shell
Conus mucronatus3 cone shell
Conus ochroleucus3 cone shell
Conus praecellens3 cone shell
Conus recluzianus3 cone shell
Conus sulcatus3 cone shell
Conus cf. pertusus3 Bruguière 1792 cone shell
"Conus figulinus" = Conus (Dendroconus) figulinus3 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
Conus quercinus3 Solander 1786 cone shell
Conus cf. catus3 Hwass in Bruguiére 1792 cone shell
Conus corrugatus3 Sowerby 1870 cone shell
Conus cf. coelinae3 Crosse 1858 cone shell
Conus acutangulus3 Lamarck 1810 cone shell
Conus ammiralis3 Linnaeus 1758 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Pseudomelatomidae
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) torquata" = Strioterebrum3, "Terebra (Oxymeris) cf. felina" = Terebra3, Terebra (Triplostephanus) triseriata3, "Terebra (Myurella) pretiosa" = Terebra3, "Terebra (Myurella) alveolata" = Terebra3, Terebra (Myurella) myuros3, Terebra (Strioterebrum) nebulosa3, Terebra (Terebra) subulata3, "Terebra (Oxymeris) interlineata" = Subula (Oxymeris)3, Terebra (Microtrypetes) kerensis3
"Terebra (Strioterebrum) torquata" = Strioterebrum3 auger snail
"Terebra (Oxymeris) cf. felina" = Terebra3 auger snail
"Terebra (Myurella) pretiosa" = Terebra3 auger snail
"Terebra (Myurella) alveolata" = Terebra3 auger snail
Terebra (Myurella) myuros3 Lamarck 1822 auger snail
Terebra (Strioterebrum) nebulosa3 Sowerby 1825 auger snail
Terebra (Terebra) subulata3 Linnaeus 1767 auger snail
"Terebra (Oxymeris) interlineata" = Subula (Oxymeris)3 auger snail
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Strombus (Euprotomus) bulla3 Röding 1798 conch
 Stromboidea - Rostellariidae
"Tibia (Tibia) powisii" = Tibia (Sulcogladius) powisi3
"Tibia (Tibia) powisii" = Tibia (Sulcogladius) powisi3 Petit 1840 snail
 Ficoidea - Ficidae
Ficus ficoides3 fig shell
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
 Velutinoidea - Triviidae
"Trivirostra (Dolichupis) producta" = Dolichupis producta3, "Trivia (Trivirostra) oryza" = Trivirostra oryza2
"Trivirostra (Dolichupis) producta" = Dolichupis producta3 Gaskoin 1836 snail
"Trivia (Trivirostra) oryza" = Trivirostra oryza2 Lamarck 1810 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica (Natica) vitellus3 Linnaeus 1758 moon snail
"Natica (Tectonatica) aff. violacea" = Tectonatica3 moon snail
Mammilla melanostoma2 Gmelin 1791 moon snail
Neverita albumen3 moon snail
 Cypraeoidea - Ovulidae
Volva (Volva) volva3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
Ovula ishibashii3 Kuroda 1928 snail
Phenacovolva longirostrata3 Sowerby 1828 snail
Dentiovula tadashigei3 Cate 1973 snail
 Cypraeoidea - Cypraeidae
"Cypraea (Notadusta) punctata" = Notadusta punctata3, Cypraea (Lyncina) porteri2, Cypraea (Erosaria) guttata2, Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2, "Cypraea (Erronea) gracilis" = Purpuradusta gracilis3, "Cypraea (Erronea) cf. pyriformis" = Erronea pyriformis3, "Cypraea (Erronea) pulchella" = Adusta pulchella3
"Cypraea (Notadusta) punctata" = Notadusta punctata3 Linneaus 1771 cowry
Cypraea (Lyncina) porteri2 Cate 1966 cowry
Cypraea (Erosaria) guttata2 Gmelin 1791 cowry
Cypraea (Erosaria) helvola2 Linnaeus 1758 cowry
"Cypraea (Erronea) gracilis" = Purpuradusta gracilis3 Gaskoin 1848 cowry
"Cypraea (Erronea) cf. pyriformis" = Erronea pyriformis3 Gray 1824 cowry
"Cypraea (Erronea) pulchella" = Adusta pulchella3 Swainson 1823 cowry
 Xenophoroidea - Xenophoridae
Xenophora konai2 Habe 1953 carrier shell
Xenophora calculifera2 Reeve 1842 carrier shell
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Cymatium (Ranularia) sinensis" = Ranularia3, Biplex perca2
"Cymatium (Ranularia) sinensis" = Ranularia3 triton shell
Biplex perca2 triton shell
 Tonnoidea - Personidae
"Distorsio (Rhysema) reticulata" = Distorsio2
"Distorsio (Rhysema) reticulata" = Distorsio2 snail
 Tonnoidea - Tonnidae
Tonna allium3 tun shell
 Tonnoidea - Bursidae
Bursa bufonia3, Bursa rubeta3, "Bursa (Colubrellina) margaritula" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) margaritula2
Bursa bufonia3 Gmelin 1791 frog shell
Bursa rubeta3 Röding 1798 frog shell
"Bursa (Colubrellina) margaritula" = Bufonaria (Bufonaria) margaritula2 Deshayes 1832 frog shell
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
Casmaria ponderosa3, Phalium areola3, "Phallium (Semicassis) bisulcatum" = Semicassis bisulcata2
Casmaria ponderosa3 Gmelin 1791 snail
Phalium areola3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
"Phallium (Semicassis) bisulcatum" = Semicassis bisulcata2 Schubert and Wagner 1829 snail
 Rissooidea - Rissoidae
Zebina (Morchiella) supracostata3 snail
original entry: Zebina (Moerchiella) supracostata
 Sorbeoconcha - Siliquariidae
"Siliquaria cumingii" = Tenagodus3, "Siliquaria aff. armata" = Tenagodus3
"Siliquaria cumingii" = Tenagodus3 snail
"Siliquaria aff. armata" = Tenagodus3 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Planaxidae
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Clypeomorus coralium3 cerith snail
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
 Architectonicoidea - Architectonicidae
Mangonuia sp.3 Mestayer 1930 snail
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
Turbo (Turbo) petholatus3, "Astraea (Bolma) girgyllus" = Bolma3
Turbo (Turbo) petholatus3 Linnaeus 1758 snail
"Astraea (Bolma) girgyllus" = Bolma3 snail
 Scissurelloidea - Scissurellidae
 Trochoidea - Trochidae
Enida warreni3 top snail
 Thecideida - Thecidellinidae
 Thecideida - Thecideidae
Lacazella "sp. 2"1 Munier-Chalmas 1881
 Terebratulida - Frenulinidae
Frenulina sp.1 Dall 1894
 Terebratulida - Cancellothyrididae
Terebratulina "sp. 2"1 d'Orbigny 1847
 Craniida - Craniidae