Friesenhahn Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as Bulverde Cave

Where: Bexar County, Texas (29.6° N, 98.4° W: paleocoordinates 29.6° N, 98.4° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "More than 90 percent of all the fossil material found in place came from... Zone 3 where it was the most abundant element of the fauna... Fossil material... was also abundant in Zone 4, the channel fill. This material, however, was largely or entirely reworked from the underlying Zones 2 and 3, and was generally in broken condition... the deposit should be referred to one or more stages of the Wisconsin in the late Pleistocene"

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; carbonaceous claystone

• "Zone 3 consists of banded clays ranging in color from deep blue-gray near the central part of the cave to mottled reddish brown near the walls. Characteristic of this zone are broad, dark bands of carbonaceous material which extend through its entire thickness"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected in 1949, 1951; reposited in the TMM

Primary reference: W. W. Milstead. 1956. Fossil turtles of Friesenhahn Cave, Texas, with the description of a new species of Testudo. Copeia 1956(3):162-171 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 79632: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 16.03.2008, edited by Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• new TMM material, not the same as older material described by Hay (1921) and others
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Scaphiopus sp.3 Holbrook 1836 spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 frog
Rana pipiens3 Schreber 1782 Northern leopard frog
 Salientia - Leptodactylidae
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo woodhousei3 Girard 1854 Woodhouse's toad
"Bufo woodhousei bexarensis" type
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
"Testudo (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni
"Testudo (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni" = Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) wilsoni Milstead 1956 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Terrapene bulverda n. sp.1 Hay 1921 box turtle
USNM 9221 (holotype), posterior portions of a carapace (Hay 1921, fig. 4)
Terrapene carolina2 Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Crotaphytus collaris3 Say 1823 Collared lizard
 Squamata - Viperidae
Crotalus atrox3 rattlesnake
 Squamata - Colubridae
Pituophis melanoleucus3 Daudin 1803 pine snake
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Peromyscus maniculatus3 Wagner 1843 deer mouse
see Tamsitt 1957; confirmed by Martin 1968
Peromyscus cf. eremicus2 Baird 1858 deer mouse
Peromyscus leucopus3 Rafinesque 1818 white-footed mouse
see Tamsitt 1957; confirmed by Martin 1968
Peromyscus gossypinus2 Le Conte 1853 cotton mouse
Peromyscus cf. boylii2 Baird 1855 brush mouse
see Tamsitt 1957
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
"Perognathus hispidus" = Chaetodipus hispidus3
"Perognathus hispidus" = Chaetodipus hispidus3 Baird 1858 hispid pocket mouse
see Kennerly 1956
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus californicus4 Gray 1837 black-tailed jackrabbit
see Pettus 1956
Sylvilagus floridanus4 Allen 1890 eastern cottontail
see Pettus 1956
Sylvilagus audubonii4 Baird 1858 desert cottontail
"Sylvilagus auduboni"
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Aenocyon sp." = Canis
"Aenocyon sp." = Canis Linnaeus 1758 canine
 Carnivora - Felidae
Homotherium serum5 Cope 1893 cat
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum Kerr 1792 American mastodon
"Mammut americana"
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
"Parelephas sp." = Mammuthus
"Parelephas sp." = Mammuthus Brookes 1828 mammoth
 Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus nasutus5 Leidy 1868 peccary
see Lundelius 1960
 Artiodactyla - Bovidae
Bison sp. Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison