Coll. 1 - Black Swamp, Mount Hope [Mount Hope Fm] (Pleistocene of Panama)

Where: Panama (9.3° N, 79.9° W: paleocoordinates 9.3° N, 79.6° W)

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Mount Hope Formation, Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS: From what Scott (pers comm., 1911) referred to as the "Mount Hope Fm". Lithostratigraphic relationships are unknown, but presumably the unit locally overlies the Gatun Fm. THICKNESS: Unknown stratigraphic thickness. AGE: Pleistocene, presumably (given geographic position) the Early Pleistocene. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: From the oyster bearing later.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lagoonal or restricted shallow subtidal; unlithified, shelly/skeletal, carbonaceous siltstone

• ENVIRONMENT: Shallow marine, siliciclastic-dominated setting adjacent to reef facies.
• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Coral mud, with corals and coralline fragments and many molluscan remains,mixed with more or less silt containing small species. LITHIFICATION: Unlithified, based on figured specimens and age.

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• COLLECTOR: W.B. Scott and M.D.F. MacDonald (1911). REPOSITORY: ANSP, Philadelphia.

Primary reference: A. P. Brown and H. A. Pilsbry. 1913. Two collections of Pleistocene fossils from the Isthmus of Panama. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 65(2):493-500 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/S. Ávila]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 80304: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 12.04.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• COVERAGE: Exhaustive for Bivalvia and Gastropoda, and including Cirripedia and Anthozoa. NOMENCLATURE: Antiquated, but identified to species-resolution.
 Scleractinia - Mussidae
Manicina areolata Linnaeus 1758 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Merulinidae
Cladocora arbuscula Lesueur 1820 stony coral
listed as Cladocora orbuscula
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Favia fragum Esper 1795 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Agariciidae
Agaricia agaricites Linnaeus 1758 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Poritidae
Porites porites Pallas 1766 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Siderastreidae
Siderastrea siderea Ellis and Solander 1786 stony coral
 Balanomorpha - Balanidae
Balanus eburneus Gould 1841 barnacle
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
 Gadilida - Gadilidae
Cadulus vaughani tusk shell
 Arcida - Arcidae
"Scapharca pittieri" = Anadara (Cunearca) pittieri, "Arca campechiensis" = Lunarca ovalis, "Anadara transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa3, "Arca occidentalis" = Byssoarca zebra, "Arca imbricata" = Lamarcka imbricata, "Arca umbonata" = Lamarcka imbricata, Acar domingensis3, Barbatia sp.3
"Scapharca pittieri" = Anadara (Cunearca) pittieri Dall 1912 ark
"Arca campechiensis" = Lunarca ovalis Bruguiere 1789 ark
"Anadara transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa3 Say 1822 ark
"Arca occidentalis" = Byssoarca zebra Swainson 1833 ark
"Arca imbricata" = Lamarcka imbricata Bruguière 1789 clam
"Arca umbonata" = Lamarcka imbricata Bruguière 1789 clam
Acar domingensis3 Lamarck 1819 miniature ark
Barbatia sp.3 Gray 1842 clam
 Arcida - Noetiidae
"Arca adamsi" = Arcopsis adamsi
"Arca adamsi" = Arcopsis adamsi Dall 1886 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus, "Pecten ziczac" = Euvola ziczac, "Pecten exasperatus" = Lindapecten muscosus
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus Linnaeus 1758 calico scallop
"Pecten ziczac" = Euvola ziczac Linnaeus 1758 scallop
"Pecten exasperatus" = Lindapecten muscosus Wood 1828 scallop
 Ostreida - Malleidae
Isognomon (Melina) bicolor2 Adams 1845 oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea virginica" = Crassostrea virginica
"Ostrea virginica" = Crassostrea virginica Gmelin 1791 oyster
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
"Mytilus exustus" = Brachidontes exustus
"Mytilus exustus" = Brachidontes exustus Linnaeus 1758 mussel
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula swiftiana" = Caryocorbula caribaea, "Corbula aequivalvis" = Juliacorbula aequivalvis
"Corbula swiftiana" = Caryocorbula caribaea d'Orbigny 1845 clam
"Corbula aequivalvis" = Juliacorbula aequivalvis Philippi 1836 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Gafrarium (Gouldia) cerina Adams 1845 venus clam
Chione cancellata Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
"Pitar subaresta" = Pitar subarestus Dall 1912 venus clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama sp. Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
Diplodonta soror Adams 1852 clam
Diplodonta mediamericana Brown and Pilsbry 1913 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium medium" = Americardia media, "Cardium muricatum" = Trachycardium (Dallocardia) muricatum, "Cardium serratum" = Laevicardium serratum
"Cardium medium" = Americardia media Linnaeaus 1758 cockle
"Cardium muricatum" = Trachycardium (Dallocardia) muricatum Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium serratum" = Laevicardium serratum Linnaeus 1758 cockle
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Abra aequalis Say 1822 abra
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Tellina (Cyclotellina) fausta" = Arcopagia fausta, "Tellina (Angulus) promera" = Angulus merus, "Tellina (Angulus) versicolor" = Angulus versicolor, Tellina (Eurytellina) alternata
"Tellina (Cyclotellina) fausta" = Arcopagia fausta Pulteney 1799 tellin clam
"Tellina (Angulus) promera" = Angulus merus Say 1834 tellin clam
"Tellina (Angulus) versicolor" = Angulus versicolor De Kay 1843 tellin clam
Tellina (Eurytellina) alternata Say 1822 tellin clam
 Poromyida - Cuspidariidae
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Lucina chrysostoma" = Anodontia alba, "Codakia antillarum" = Parvilucina costata, "Phacoides antillarum" = Parvilucina costata, "Phacoides cf. crenulatus" = Parvilucina crenulata, "Codakia orbiculata" = Ctena orbiculata, "Phacoides lintea" = Lucinisca nassula, Phacoides sp., Phacoides pectinatus, "Phacoides leucocyma" = Pleurolucina leucocyma
"Lucina chrysostoma" = Anodontia alba Link 1807 clam
"Codakia antillarum" = Parvilucina costata d'Orbigny 1846 clam
"Phacoides antillarum" = Parvilucina costata d'Orbigny 1846 clam
"Phacoides cf. crenulatus" = Parvilucina crenulata Conrad 1840 clam
"Codakia orbiculata" = Ctena orbiculata Montagu 1808 clam
"Phacoides lintea" = Lucinisca nassula Conrad 1846 clam
Phacoides sp. Blainville 1825 clam
Phacoides pectinatus Gmelin 1791 clam
"Phacoides leucocyma" = Pleurolucina leucocyma Dall 1886 clam
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassinella guadalupensis d'Orbigny 1853 clam
 Nuculanida - Nuculanidae
"Leda vulgaris" = Saccella vulgaris, "Leda acuta" = Nuculana acuta, "Yoldia perprotracta" = Adrana newcombi
"Leda vulgaris" = Saccella vulgaris Brown and Pilsbry 1913 pointed nut clam
"Leda acuta" = Nuculana acuta Conrad 1832 pointed nut clam
"Yoldia perprotracta" = Adrana newcombi Angas 1878 pointed nut clam
 Neritoidea - Neritidae
"Neritina viridis" = Smaragdia (Smaragdia) viridis
"Neritina viridis" = Smaragdia (Smaragdia) viridis Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neotaenioglossa - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula plana Say 1822 slipper shell
Crepidula convexa Say 1822 slipper shell
"Calyptraea candeana" = Calyptraea centralis Conrad 1841 slipper shell
 Pseudomelanoidea - Pseudomelaniidae
"Drillia leucocyma" = Pilsbryspira leucocyma
"Drillia leucocyma" = Pilsbryspira leucocyma Dall 1884 snail
 Cerithioidea - Potamididae
 Cerithioidea - Scaliolidae
"Alabina cerithidioides" = Finella dubia
"Alabina cerithidioides" = Finella dubia d'Orbigny 1840 snail
[entered as Alabina cerithioides]
 Cerithioidea - Litiopidae
"Alaba tervaricosa" = Alaba incerta
"Alaba tervaricosa" = Alaba incerta d'Orbigny 1842 snail
 Cerithioidea - Cerithiidae
"Bittium varium" = Bittiolum varium, Cerithium medium, "Cerithium algicola" = Cerithium eburneum, "Cerithium variabile" = Cerithium lutosum, Cerithium litteratum3
"Bittium varium" = Bittiolum varium Pfeiffer 1840 cerith snail
Cerithium medium cerith snail
"Cerithium algicola" = Cerithium eburneum Bruguière 1792 cerith snail
"Cerithium variabile" = Cerithium lutosum Menke 1828 cerith snail
Cerithium litteratum3 Born 1778 cerith snail
[entered as Cerithium literatum]
 Cerithioidea - Modulidae
Modulus modulus Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Littorinidae
"Littorina angulifera" = Littoraria angulifera
"Littorina angulifera" = Littoraria angulifera Lamarck 1822 periwinkle
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiopsidae
Cerithiopsis sp. Hanley 1849 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Vermetidae
"Vermetus nigricans" = Petaloconchus nigricans
"Vermetus nigricans" = Petaloconchus nigricans Dall 1884 worm shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Naticidae
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum, "Natica pusilla" = Tectonatica pusilla
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum Say 1831 moon snail
"Natica pusilla" = Tectonatica pusilla Say 1822 moon snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Strombidae
Strombus pugilis, "Strombus bituberculatus" = Lobatus rarinus
Strombus pugilis Linnaeus 1758 conch
"Strombus bituberculatus" = Lobatus rarinus Gmelin 1791 true conch
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Fasciolaria sp. Lamarck 1799 tulip snail
"Murex nodatus" = Latirus nodatus Gmelin 1791 snail
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Engina turbinella, "Phos intricatus" = Bailya intricata
Engina turbinella Kiener 1836 true whelk
"Phos intricatus" = Bailya intricata Dall 1884 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa vibex" = Nassarius vibex
"Nassa vibex" = Nassarius vibex Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Anachis avara" = Costoanachis avara Say 1822 snail
Columbella mercatoria Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Olivella myrmecoon" = Olivella (Minioliva) myrmecoon
"Olivella myrmecoon" = Olivella (Minioliva) myrmecoon Dall 1912 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Volutidae
Voluta alfaroi Dall 1912 volute
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
Marginella cincta margin shell
Marginella pallida margin shell
Marginella minuta Pfeiffer 1840 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Murex rufus murex snail
"Murex pomum" = Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum Gmelin 1791 murex snail
"Aspella scalarioides" = Dermomurex (Dermomurex) scalaroides Blainville 1826 murex snail
Urosalpinx sp. Stimpson 1865 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Clathurellidae
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
"Conus proteus" = Conus spurius
"Conus proteus" = Conus spurius Gmelin 1791 cone shell
 Neogastropoda - Cochlespiridae
"Drillia ostrearum" = Pyrgospira ostrearum
"Drillia ostrearum" = Pyrgospira ostrearum Stearns 1872 snail
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
Terebra spei Brown and Pilsbry 1913 auger snail
 Neogastropoda - Mangeliidae
"Cythara balteata" = Ithycythara lanceolata Adams 1850 snail
 Neogastropoda - Drilliidae
Drillia harfordiana Reeve 1843 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Triviidae
"Trivia pediculus" = Pusula pediculus
"Trivia pediculus" = Pusula pediculus Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Ranellidae
Cymatium tuberosum triton shell
Monoplex comptus1 Adams 1855 triton shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Rissoidae
"Rissoina laevigata" = Zebina laevigata Adams 1850 snail
Rissoina elegantissima d'Orbigny 1842 snail
 Vanikoroidea - Eulimidae
Eulima bifasciata d'Orbigny 1841 snail
 Trochoidea - Tegulidae
 Trochoidea - Turbinidae
"Turbo crenulatus" = Turbo (Senectus) castanea Gmelin 1791 snail
 Trochoidea - Phasianellidae
 Lepetellida - Fissurellidae
"Fissuridea alternata" = Diodora cayenensis Lamarck 1822 snail
 Opisthobranchia - Cylichnidae
"Tornatina canaliculata" = Acteocina canaliculata, "Cylichnella bidentata" = Acteocina bidentata
"Tornatina canaliculata" = Acteocina canaliculata Say 1826 barrel-bubble
"Cylichnella bidentata" = Acteocina bidentata d'Orbigny 1841 barrel-bubble
 Opisthobranchia - Haminoeidae
Atys sandersoni, "Haminea canalis" = Haminoea, "Haminea antillarum" = Haminoea
"Haminea canalis" = Haminoea snail
"Haminea antillarum" = Haminoea snail
 Opisthobranchia - Bullidae
"Bullaria occidentalis" = Bulla striata
"Bullaria occidentalis" = Bulla striata Bruguiére 1792 snail
 Patellida - Lottiidae
"Acmaea punctulata" = Patelloida pustulata
"Acmaea punctulata" = Patelloida pustulata Helbling 1779 limpet
 Chitonida - Chitonidae
Tonicia schrammi Shuttleworth 1856 chiton