Linton (Carboniferous of the United States)

Also known as Diamond Coal Mine

Where: Jefferson County, Ohio (40.6° N, 80.7° W: paleocoordinates 7.8° S, 18.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Upper Freeport Coal Member, Westphalian D (311.4 - 306.9 Ma)

• "immediately [... below ...] a locally thick bituminous seam, known as the Upper Freeport coal, at the top of the Allegheny Group. The Upper Freeport is the No. 6 coal of Newberry (1871, 1874, 1878) or the No. 7 coal of subsequent Ohio Geological Survey reports, and is taken to be correlative to the top of the Westphalian D Series of Europe" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: mire or swamp; coal

• "the cannel [...] originated as a subaqueous sapropelic peat that formed under neutral to moderately alkaline, anoxic conditions [...] at the bottom of an approximately 15-m-deep abandoned river meander [...] the Linton meander was closed rapidly by neck cutoff . In the absence of significant clastic influx, plant debris derived from the surrounding levees formed a peaty muck in the bottom of the oxbow and, after a brief period of aerobic decomposition, degenerated into an anoxic, scavenger-free sapropelic peat.

•The oxbow was situated in the meander belt on a large, contemporaneously active river. As sediment supply within this system diminished, peat-forming mires expanded over floodplain deposits, and where no clastic sediments intervened, humic peat accumulated directly above sapropel-filled abandoned channel segments." (Hook & Baird, 1988)

• "Linton fossils are preserved in a thin deposit of cannel coal [...]. The cannel is composed primarily of miospores and other resistant plant parts dispersed within a very fine-grained, pyrite-rich matrix of organic detritus" which are enclosed in an "erosive-based, fining-upward, sandstone-dominated

•sediment body" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by J. S. Newberry, T. Stock, S. Houston, D. Baird, D. Mullenaux, among others; reposited in the AMNH, CM, MCZ, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• "thousands of fossils [...] obtained within the mine, from the mine dump, and from local collectors" (Hook & Baird, 1988)

•PU = Princeton University Fossil Vertebrate Collection (should now be reposited in the Yale Peabody Museum)

Primary reference: E. D. Cope. 1875. Supplement to the Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America I. Catalogue of the Air Breathing Vertebrata from the Coal Measures of Linton, Ohio. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 15(2):261-278 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 85292: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 10.12.2008, edited by Matthew Carrano, Emma Dunne, Matthew Clapham and Bethany Allen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Anderson (2002) states that AMNH 6966 (incl. 6886) is the "only known specimen" of Phlegethontia linearis. Hence, all other specimens referred to P. linearis by earlier authors (i.e. Lund, 1978) are listed as P. longissima in the taxonomic list. However, since some of this material is neither listed as Phlegethontia nor even mentioned at all by Anderson (2002), there is no information on the current whereabouts and taxonomic status of these specimens (marked by an asterisk in the taxonomic list).
Myriapoda
 Spirobolida - Plagiascetidae
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14
Plagiascetus lateralis n. gen. n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
PU 84788
 Spirobolida - Xyloiulidae
Xyloiulus bairdi n. sp.14 Hoffman 1963 millipede
MCZ 5268, 5320, 5321; PU 84787
Osteichthyes
 Palaeoniscoidea -
Palaeoniscoidea sp.15
PU 16536 (pars)
 Temnospondyli - Eogyrinidae
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7
Leptophractus obsoletus n. gen. n. sp.7 Cope 1873 tetrapod
AMNH 6831 and Columbia Univ. specimen (syntypes; both upper and lower jaws of skulls)
 Temnospondyli - Anthracosauridae
Anthracosaurus lancifer n. sp.19 Newberry 1856 tetrapod
Ohio State Univ. Mus 4500 (holotype, a palatal tusk)
 Temnospondyli - Cochleosauridae
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.16
Adamanterpeton ohioensis n. gen. n. sp.16 Milner and Sequeira 1998 tetrapod
AMNH 2933 (holotype; skull in partial counterpart on two slabs of coal)
 Temnospondyli - Dissorophidae
"Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13, "Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi21, "Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi22, "Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi21
"Tuditanus huxleyi n. sp." = Macrerpeton huxleyi13 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6834 (Newberry 9022) (Holotype: nearly complete skill (length 11.5cm) now represented by acid-etched molds of part and counterpart)
"Ceraterpeton divaricatum n. sp." = Stegops newberryi21 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2559/FMNH UR16 (Holotype: counterparts)
"Stegops divaricata n. sp." = Stegops newberryi22 Cope 1875 tetrapod
"Erpetosaurus tuberculatus n. sp." = Stegops newberryi21 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6952
 Temnospondyli - Amphibamidae
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21, "Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21, "Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21
"Raniceps lyelli n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 6841 (Holotype: almost complete skeleton in dorsal aspect and skull in ventral aspect as acid-etched counterpart mould)
"Tuditanus mordex n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2566
"Ichthycanthus platypus n. gen. n. sp." = Platyrhinops lyelli21 Wyman 1858 tetrapod
AMNH 2002
 Temnospondyli - Eobrachyopidae
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5, "Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6, "Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12, "Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus17
"Dendrerpeton obtusum n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6928 (type)
"Colosteus foveatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus6 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6919
"Sauropleura latithorax n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus12 Cope 1868 tetrapod
USNM 4471 (type)
"Tuditanus tabulatus n. sp." = Isodectes obtusus17 Cope 1868 tetrapod
"Single well-preserved skull and its obverse in the collection of the Colombia University of New York City"
 Temnospondyli -
"Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8, "Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus17, "Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus17
"Tuditanus radiatus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus8 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 6922 (Holotype, acid-etched mold of skull in dorsal aspect)
"Diceratosaurus laevis n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus17 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 102
"Diceratosaurus robustus n. sp." = Erpetosaurus radiatus17 Cope 1874 tetrapod
AMNH 8611 G
 Caudata - Urodela
Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp.5, Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp.9
Brachydectes newberryi n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 salamander
AMNH 6941 (Holotype designated by Hook (1983); a nearly complete right mandible, left dentary, two premaxillae and a right maxilla)
Pleuroptyx clavatus n. gen. n. sp.9 Cope 1875 salamander
AMNH 6838 (Holotype; a series of five vertebrae and associated ribs), AMNH 6863, BM(NH) R.2676, MB 47, MCZ 2303, and USNM 4509 (all attributed specimens)
 Tetrapoda - Colosteidae
Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.17, "Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4
Ichthyerpeton squamosum n. sp.17 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
"Pygopterus scutellatus n. sp." = Colosteus scutellatus4 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6916 (holotype; formerly Columbia University 8584G & 8666G, incomplete skull and anterior portion of trunk)
 Tetrapoda - Gephyrostegidae
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3, "? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3
"Sauropleura digitata n. gen. n. sp." = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6865 (formerly 8004 G, type), AMNH 6960
"? Eusauropleura digitata" = Eusauropleura digitata3 Cope 1868 tetrapod
PU 16815
Reptilia
 Eureptilia - Protorothyrididae
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes
"Sauropleura longipes n. sp." = Anthracodromeus longipes Cope 1875 eureptile
AMNH 6940 (type)
Osteichthyes
 Synapsida - Ophiacodontidae
Archaeothyris sp.20 Reisz 1972 ophiacodont
MB-R57/59; AMNH 2567 (assigned to S. digitata by Moodie, 1916)
 Pelycosauria -
Pelycosauria indet.20 pelycosaur
PU 19840
 Baphetoidea - Baphetidae
"Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11, "Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2
"Leptophractus lineolatus n. gen. n. sp." = Megalocephalus lineolatus11 Cope 1877 tetrapod
AMNH 6828 (formerly Newberry 1086/1087G) (holotype; fragment of skull and left mandibular ramus prepared as acid-etched mold)
"Baphetes lintonensis n. sp." = Loxomma lintonensis2 Beaumont 1977 tetrapod
AMNH 6944 (holotype; part and counterpart of juvenile skull)
 Aistopoda - Ophiderpetontidae
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum23, "Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum23
"Ophiderpeton amphiuminum" = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum23 Cope 1868 tetrapod
MCZ 2165, caudal series
"Cercariomorphus parvisquamis n. gen. n. sp." = Ophiderpeton amphiuminum23 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 2560 (holotype); AMNH 8683G
 Aistopoda - Oestocephalidae
"Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5, Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5
"Sauropleura pectinata n. gen. n. sp." = Oestocephalus pectinatus5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6868 (Lectotype, skull in lateral and partial palatal view, dermal pectoral girdle and much of trunk. Figured by Cope 1875c, pl XLI, fig. 1)
Oestocephalus amphiuminum n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6857 (Holotype; skull and anterior trunk)
 Aistopoda - Phlegethontiidae
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1, "Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1, "Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1
Phlegethontia linearis n. gen. n. sp.1 Cope 1871 tetrapod
AMNH 6966 (type; part and counterpart; counterpart originally catalogued as AMNH 6886)
"Phlegethontia longissima" = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 2564 (referred to "Cocytinus gyrinoides Cope" by Moodie, 1916), 6884*, 6913 (neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); MCZ 2038, 2134*, 2135 (part and counterpart)*, 2300*, 2301*, 2334 (part and counterpart); CM 23053*, 23056*, 44759. 68307, 68336, 68338 (all CM specimens without asterisk are neither mentioned by McGinnis, 1967 nor Lund, 1978); USNM 4484 (listed as "Phlegethontia n. sp." by McGinnis, 1967); PU 16536 (pars)*, 16537*, 18737*; asterisks mark specimens reported from Linton by either McGinnis (1967; as P. cf. P. longissima) or Lund (1978; as P. linearis) but not at all mentioned by Anderson (2002); see also comments on taxonomic list
"Phlegethontia serpens n. sp." = Phlegethontia longissima1 Fritsch 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6899 (type)
 Microsauria - Tuditanidae
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10
Tuditanus punctulatus n. gen. n. sp.10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6926 (Holotype, skull and much of postcranial skeleton in counterpart blocks)
 Microsauria - Odonterpetontidae
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.18
Odonterpeton triangulare n. gen. n. sp.18 Moodie 1909 tetrapod
USNM 4465 (Holotype, skull and anterior postcranial skeleton)
 Microsauria - Molgophidae
Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5
Molgophis macrurus n. gen. n. sp.5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
No holotype was designated but attributed specimens from Linton include: AMNH 6840, AMNH 6913, AMNH 6963, AMNH 6968 (all articulated vertebral and rib material). Specimens from others localities can be found at MCZ.
 Nectridea - Urocordylidae
"Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6, "Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5
"Colosteus marshii n. sp." = Ptyonius marshii6 Cope 1869 tetrapod
AMNH 6862 (Holotype; partial skull, ventral scales, and disarticulated postcranial elements. Figured by Cope 1875c pl. XXVII, fig. 6)
"Sauropleura remex n. sp." = Ctenerpeton remex5 Cope 1868 tetrapod
AMNH 6907 (Holotype; well-preserved portion of tail, consisting of 23 caudal vertebrae, maximum height 19.7mm; counterpart YPM (PU) 1769). At least nine specimens known in collections at AMNH, USNM, and YPM (PU).
 Nectridea - Diplocaulidae
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10
"Tuditanus brevirostris n. sp." = Diceratosaurus brevirostris10 Cope 1875 tetrapod
AMNH 6933 (Holotype; acid-etched mould of skull and articulated skeleton in counterpart, complete as far as 7th caudal vertebra. Dorsal skull roof lacking except for right tabular horn.)