Graphite Peak (Fremouw Fm.) (Triassic of Antarctica)

Where: Antarctica (85.1° S, 172.5° E: paleocoordinates 80.7° S, 70.9° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Fremouw Formation (Beacon Group), Early/Lower Triassic (252.2 - 247.2 Ma)

• According to Collinson et al. (2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) fig. 6) Lystrosaurus, Prolacerta and Thrinaxodon come from the lower part of the lower Fremouw Fm., about 13 m above formational base.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial; carbonaceous claystone

• "Late Permian and Triassic rocks in the central Transantarctic Mountains were deposited in a retroarc foreland basin (Dalziel and Elliot, 1982; Collinson, 1990, 1991; Isbell, 1991; Collinson et al., 1994)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 749); "The entire Upper Permian and Lower to Middle Triassic fluvial sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains was deposited by low-sinuosity braided streams (Barrett et al., 1986)." (Collinson et al., 2006 p. 757)
• lithology is from Collinson et al. (2006, GSA Bull. 118(5/6) fig. 6)

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by J. Barrett, J. W. Kitching in 1967, 1969-1970, 1970-1971; reposited in the AMNH

Primary reference: E. H. Colbert and J. W. Kitching. 1977. Triassic Cynodont Reptiles From Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2611:1-30 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 87420: authorized by Johannes Mueller, entered by Torsten Liebrecht on 17.03.2009, edited by Richard Butler and Emma Dunne

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Osteichthyes
 Temnospondyli -
Brachyopoidea indet.4 Lydekker 1885 tetrapod
"fragment of a labyrinthodont amphibian lower jaw"
Reptilia
 Eosuchia - Prolacertidae
Prolacerta broomi1 Parrington 1935 archosauromorph
AMNH 9560, cranial and postcranial fragments
 Eosuchia -
Antarctanax shackletoni n. gen. n. sp.3
Antarctanax shackletoni n. gen. n. sp.3 Peecook et al. 2019 archosauromorph
UWBM 95531, consisting of eight presacral vertebrae, several ribs, a left humerus, left metatarsals I–V phalanges, unguals, and unidentifiable flat bones on one slab and an almost complete right pes and a dorsal rib on a second, which was adjoining the first but separated during preparation. Specimen UWBM 95531 is considered to represent a somatically mature individual because all neural arches present are completely fused to their centra, with no indications of sutures.
Osteichthyes
 Therapsida -
Thrinaxodon liorhinus Seeley 1894 therapsid
AMNH 9546, 9547
 Therapsida - Kingoriidae
Kombuisia antarctica2 Fröbisch et al. 2010 dicynodont
AMNH 9545 (paratype), near complete skull