Siwalik Hills (Pliocene of Pakistan)

Where: Pakistan (30.7° N, 76.8° E: paleocoordinates 29.2° N, 77.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Pinjor Formation, Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: Local environment (based on mammals) is open grassland,with some bushland ansd wooded grassland.

Primary reference: M. Pickford. 2007. Revision of the Mio-Pliocene bunodont otter-like mammals of the Indian Subcontinent. Estudios Geologicos 63(1):83-127 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 92070: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 28.10.2009, edited by Evangelos Vlachos and Bethany Allen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• This faunal list is an amalgamation of specimens collected at a number of localities in the area. Gastropods, etc., are mentioned but not described. Also 'unionids' listed.
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
"Megalochelys sivalensis n. gen. n. sp." = Megalochelys sivalensis1, "Colossochelys atlas n. gen. n. sp." = Megalochelys sivalensis2, "Batagur bakeri n. sp." = Cachuga lineata5, "Batagur durandi n. sp." = Cachuga dhongoka5, Cachuga tectum5, Damonia hamiltoni5, Testudo atlas n. sp.5, Testudo cautleyi n. sp.5, Testudo punjabiensis n. sp.5, Nicoria tricarinata3
"Megalochelys sivalensis n. gen. n. sp." = Megalochelys sivalensis1 Falconer and Cautley 1837 turtle
"Colossochelys atlas n. gen. n. sp." = Megalochelys sivalensis2 Falconer and Cautley 1837 turtle
"Batagur bakeri n. sp." = Cachuga lineata5 Gray 1831 turtle
BMNH 39835a (holotype), incomplete shell; BMNH R.891, partial juvenile shell
"Batagur durandi n. sp." = Cachuga dhongoka5 Gray 1834 turtle
BMNH 39841 (holotype), adult shell
Cachuga tectum5 Gray 1831 turtle
BMNH 39837, incomplete shell
Damonia hamiltoni5 Gray 1831 turtle
BMNH 39840, incomplete juvenile shell; BMNH 39838, adult shell; BMNH R.887, partial unusually large shell
Testudo atlas n. sp.5 Falconer and Cautley 1844 turtle
BMNH 40603 (holotype), imperfect epiplastrals of an adult; BMNH R.326a, nuchal bone; BMNH 16903, 1st and 2nd marginal on left side; BMNH 16903a, part of left side of shell; BMNH 16909, 1st marginal bone on left side; BMNH 16904, part of 2nd and 3rd marginal on left side; BMNH R.326c, incomplete 7th and 8th marginals on left side; BMNH 326b, posterior end of carapace; BMNH 16897, right inguinal region of carapace; BMNH R.326d, right inguinal region of carapace; BMNH R.326e, partial 7th and 8th marginal bones on right side; BMNH 16940, imperfect epiplastrals of an adult; BMNH 16941, Imperfect epiplastrals and entoplastral of an adult; BMNH R.326i, piece of epiplastrals; BMNH R.920, posterior extremity of epiplastral carina; BMNH 16955, right epiplastral of a juvenile; BMNH 40629, posterior extremity of plastron; BMNH R.326r, part of right side of plastron
Testudo cautleyi n. sp.5 Lydekker 1889 turtle
BMNH R.937 (holotype), epiplastrals; BMNH R.955, part of epiplastrals from small individual
Testudo punjabiensis n. sp.5 Lydekker 1889 turtle
BMNH R.599 (cast of holotype) from "Pliocene Siwaliks of the Punjab", partial right epiplastral; BMNH R.599a, cast of left epiplastral; BMNH R.600, cast of nuchal bone
Nicoria tricarinata3 Blyth 1856 turtle
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Bellia theobaldi n. sp.5 Lydekker 1885 black marsh turtle
BMNH R.1515 (cast of holotype), imperfect shell
Bellia sivalensis n. sp.5 Lydekker 1885 black marsh turtle
BMNH R.1514 (cast of holotype), imperfect shell
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Emyda vittata5 Peters 1854 turtle
BMNH 39618, imperfect adult shell; BMNH 39833, imperfect adult shell; BMNH R.1441, conjoined right hyo- and hypoplastral; BMNH 1441b, right anterior marginal bone; BMNH 1441c, right half of nuchal; BMNH 48445, small marginal bone
 Crocodylia -
Rhamphosuchus crassidens n. sp.4 Cautley and Falconer 1840 crocodilian
BMNH 39802 (holotype), piece of rostrum; BMNH 39804, middle portion of cranium; BMNH 29803, hind portion of mandibular symphysis; BMNH R. 760, quadrate and quadratojugal; BMNH 16218, partial mandibular symphysis; BMNH R. 776, cervical vertebra; BMNH R. 776a, early dorsal vertebra; BMNH R. 759, early dorsal vertebra; BMNH R. 761, early dorsal vertebra; BMNH R. 761a, early dorsal vertebra; BMNH R. 762, dorsal vertebra; BMNH R. 763, dorsal vertebra; BMNH R.763a, late dorsal or lumbar vertebra; BMNH R. 764, late dorsal or lumbar vertebra; BMNH R. 766a, left ilium; BMNH R. 766b, small left ilium; BMNH 18460, right fibula; BMNH R. 766, large scute; BMNH 17066, dorsal scute; BMNH 39817, large dorsal scute; BMNH R. 783, dorsal scute
Mammalia
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Enhydriodon falconeri Pilgrim 1932 otter
Enhydriodon sivalensis Falconer 1868 otter