Herculaneum Fissure (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as Joachim Creek

Where: Jefferson County, Missouri (38.3° N, 90.4° W: paleocoordinates 38.3° N, 90.4° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• considered to be "late Pleistocene" based on faunal composition

•the fossiliferous "clay horizon showed no sequence of faunas whatsoever" and appears to be about two feet thick in an illustrated section where it is overlain by "gravel in clay" and above that "thick layers of travertine" that sealed the fissure

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fissure fill; claystone

• "a fissure in the Plattin limestone"
• "fossil bearing clay" with "absolutely no pebbles or gravel"

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: midden

Collected by C. Jenni, E. C. Olson, W. Read in 1939

Collection methods: quarrying,

• University of Chicago collection

•the fissure was "excavated" by Olson and Read

Primary reference: E. C. Olson. 1940. A late Pleistocene fauna from Herculaneum, Missouri. Journal of Geology 48(1):32-57 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 93379: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 16.01.2010

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Testudines -
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines Batsch 1788 turtle
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
? Alligator sp. Daudin 1809 alligator
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalidae indet. Oppel 1811 pit viper
 Rodentia - Muridae
"Peromyscus cf. nuttalli" = Ochrotomys nuttalli
"Peromyscus cf. nuttalli" = Ochrotomys nuttalli Harlan 1832 golden mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Neotoma pennsylvanica" = Neotoma floridana, Microtus cf. ochrogaster
"Neotoma pennsylvanica" = Neotoma floridana Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Microtus cf. ochrogaster Wagner 1842 prairie vole
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus sp. Linnaeus 1758 squirrel
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus americanus, "Sylvilagus (Limnolagus) aquaticus" = Sylvilagus aquaticus
Lepus americanus Erxleben 1777 snowshoe hare
"Sylvilagus (Limnolagus) aquaticus" = Sylvilagus aquaticus Bachman 1837 swamp rabbit
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
Equus complicatus Leidy 1858 horse
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
"Spilogale cf. interrupta" = Spilogale putorius
"Spilogale cf. interrupta" = Spilogale putorius Linnaeus 1758 prairie spotted skunk
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis dirus Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Canis latrans Say 1823 coyote
Urocyon sp. Baird 1857 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Felis cf. concolor" = Puma concolor
"Felis cf. concolor" = Puma concolor Linnaeus 1771 puma
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
"Megalonyx cf. jeffersoni" = Megalonyx jeffersonii
"Megalonyx cf. jeffersoni" = Megalonyx jeffersonii Desmarest 1822 Jefferson's ground sloth
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus sp. Cope 1869 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Tanupolama parvus n. sp. Olson 1940 camel
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bison sp. Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer