Family Spatangidae Gray 1825 (heart urchin)

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Spatangidae

Full reference: J. E. Gray. 1825. An attempt to divide the Echinida, or Sea Eggs, into natural families. Annals of Philosophy, new series 10:423-431

Parent taxon: Spatangidea according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Clark 1904, Clark and Twitchell 1915, Djabarov 1964, Fischer 1966, Grant and Hertlein 1938 and Turner 1938

Sister taxa: Eupatangidae, Eurypataginae, Loveniidae, Macropneustidae, Maretiidae, Megapneustidae

Subtaxa: Atelospatangus Gonimaretia Isomicraster Laevipatagus Maretia Sarsella Semipetalion Spatangus

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Ecology: slow-moving shallow infaunal deposit feeder-detritivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Eritrea (1 collection), Japan (1)

• Pliocene of Belgium (1), Japan (1), United States (4: California, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Miocene of Belgium (1), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1), Egypt (1), Indonesia (1), Italy (11), New Zealand (1)

• Oligocene of Germany (1), United States (2: North Carolina)

• Eocene of the United Kingdom (3), United States (14: California, North Carolina, South Carolina)

• Cretaceous of Austria (1), Germany (2), Greenland (1), Turkmenistan (3), United States (3: Arkansas, Texas)

Total: 54 collections including 55 occurrences

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