Family Laridae Vigors 1825 (gull)

Aves - Charadriiformes - Laridae

Parent taxon: Charadriiformes according to J. F. Clements et al. 2017

See also Baird 1992, Brodkorb 1955, Carnevale and Godfrey 2018, Carroll 1988, Chandler 1990, De Pietri et al. 2011, Gohlich 2003, Guthrie 1992, Hay 1902, Lambrecht 1933, Livezey and Zusi 2007, Mourer-Chauviré et al. 2004, Olson 1975, Olson and Rasmussen 2001, Parmalee 1992, Smith 2011, Warheit 2002 and Worthy et al. 2007

Sister taxa: Alcae, Burhinidae, Charadrii, Charadriidae, Chionidae, Cimolopterygidae, Dakotornithidae, Glareolidae, Graculavidae, Graculavus, Haematopodidae, Hydrophasianus, Jacanidae, Lari, Laromorphae, Limicolae, Panalcidae, Parrae, Pedionomae, Pedionomidae, Recurvirostridae, Rhinoptilus, Rynchops, Sarjeantopodus, Scolopaci, Scolopacidae, Stercorariidae, Telmatornis, Telmatornithidae, Thinocoridae, Turnicidae, Volgavis

Subtaxa: Anous Chlidonias Chroicocephalus Creagrus Gaviota Gelochelidon Gygis Halcyornis Hydrocoloeus Hydroprogne Larinae Larosterna Larus Leucophaeus Limicolavis Limosavis Onychoprion Pagophila Pseudosterna Rhodostethia Rissa Sterna Sterninae Sternula Thalasseus Xema

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Type: Larus

Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of American Samoa (1 collection), Antarctica (1), Argentina (1), Australia (2), Azerbaijan (1), the Bahamas (3), Canada (2: Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec), the Congo-Kinshasa (1), Cook Islands (9), East Timor (1), Ecuador (1), Falkland Islands (Malvinas) (1), Finland (1), French Polynesia (14), Greece (2), Greenland (1), Italy (4), Japan (1), Madagascar (1), the Marshall Islands (4), Mexico (1), Micronesia (4), New Zealand (11), Niue (8), Northern Mariana Islands (12), Peru (1), Pitcairn (12), Portugal (1), Puerto Rico (1), the Russian Federation (4), Saint Helena (12), the Seychelles (1), South Africa (3), Spain (2), Tonga (2), the United Kingdom (1), United States (36: Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Florida, Oregon, Virginia, Wyoming), Venezuela (4)

• Blancan of United States (5: California)

• Pliocene of South Africa (1), United States (3: Florida, North Carolina)

• Miocene of Austria (1), New Zealand (2), United States (3: Florida, North Carolina)

• Oligocene of Germany (1), United States (1: Oregon)

Total: 185 collections including 332 occurrences

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