Pliohippus pernix Marsh 1874 (horse)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Alternative combinations: Hippidium pernix, Pliohippus (Pliohippus) pernix, Protohippus pernix

Synonyms: Hippidium robustus Marsh 1874, Pliohippus (Pliohippus) lullianus Troxell 1916, Pliohippus (Pliohippus) robustus Marsh 1874, Pliohippus lullianus Troxell 1916, Pliohippus robustus Marsh 1874, Protohippus robustus Marsh 1874

Full reference: O. C. Marsh. 1874. Notice of new equine mammals from the Tertiary formation. American Journal of Science 7(39):247-258

Belongs to Pliohippus according to S. R. May 2019

See also Gidley 1903, Gidley 1907, Gregory 1942, Hay 1902, Henshaw 1942, Hulbert 1989, Kelly 1995, Kelly 1998, Kelly and Lander 1988, Macdonald 1992, MacFadden 1998, Marsh 1874, Matthew 1909, Matthew 1924, Matthew and Stirton 1930, Osborn 1918, Quinn 1955, Quinn 1987, Stirton 1940, Troxell 1916, Voorhies 1990 and Webb 1969

Sister taxa: Pliohippus (Astrohippus), Pliohippus (Pliohippus), Pliohippus bakeri, Pliohippus coalingensis, Pliohippus fossulatus, Pliohippus gracilis, Pliohippus mirabilis, Pliohippus nobilis, Pliohippus potosinus, Pliohippus proversus, Pliohippus spectans, Pliohippus tantalus, Pliohippus tehonensis

Type specimens:

  • Pliohippus pernix: YPM 13007, a partial skeleton (portions of a skull, jaws, the right pes, part of the left tibire, and so on. Also the left manus, radius, ulna and humerus, and several vertebrre. The left sup).
  • Pliohippus lullianus: AMNH 17225, a partial skeleton (the skeleton of a young colt about ten months old. The milk teeth are all visible and some are slightly worn; the first permanent true molar is well formed and ). Its type locality is Oak Creek, which is in a Miocene terrestrial horizon in South Dakota.
  • Pliohippus robustus: YPM 13008, a partial skeleton (upper teeth, fragments of the skull, fore and hind feet, radius, humerus, etc.).

Ecology: ground dwelling browser


• Miocene to Pliocene of United States (1: Oklahoma collection)

• Miocene of United States (36: Florida, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas)

Total: 37 collections each including a single occurrence

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Specimen images are retrieved through the ePANDDA API.

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