Family Nuculanidae Adams and Adams 1858 (pointed nut clam)

Bivalvia - Protobranchia - Nuculanidae

Synonym: Ledidae Adams and Adams 1858

Parent taxon: Nuculanoidea according to E. V. Coan and P. Valentich-Scott 2012

See also Bieler and Mikkelsen 2006, Carter et al. 2011, Coan et al. 2000, Dockery 1982, DuBar 1958, El Qot 2006, Fang 2006, Fang and Cope 2004, Gardner 1945, Glenn 1904, Maxwell 1992, Mikkelsen and Bieler 2008, Nevesskaja 2009, Olsson 1931, Parker 1982, Raymond 1916, Spencer et al. 2004, Stilwell and Zinsmeister 1992, Stilwell et al. 2004, Todd 2001, Vokes 1980 and Ward and Blackwelder 1987

Sister taxa: Isoarcidae, Malletiidae, Phaseolidae, Polidevciidae, Sareptidae, Saturnidae, Yoldiidae, Zealedidae

Subtaxa: Acilana Acutispinula Australoportlandia Bathyspinula Bathyspinulinae Calorhadia Clidophorus Costelloleda Dacromya Ezonuculana Glyptoleda Hilgardia Indonuculana Ledella Ledellinae Ledoides Litorhadia Mesosaccella Multidentata Nuculana Nuculaninae Nucundata Orthoyoldia Parayoldiella Phestia Phestiinae Polidevcia Poroleda Poroledidae Praeportlandia Propeleda Saccella Scissuladrana Spineilo Veteranellinae Xiaoshuiculana Zealeda

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Ecology: facultatively mobile infaunal deposit feeder-suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Canada (27: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario collections), Chile (1), Costa Rica (5), Djibouti (1), Ecuador (2), Greenland (2), Iceland (1), India (2), Ireland (1), Italy (2), Japan (1), Mexico (4), Morocco (1), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (1), Pakistan (1), Panama (4), Peru (2), the Philippines (1), South Africa (2), Thailand (1), the United Kingdom (4), United States (67: Alaska, California, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia), Uruguay (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Malaysia (7), United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene of Antarctica (1), Australia (3), Chile (4), China (1), Costa Rica (15), Ecuador (10), Haiti (1), India (1), Indonesia (2), Italy (3), Jamaica (5), Japan (12), Mexico (1), Pakistan (3), Panama (19), the Russian Federation (2), South Africa (1), Trinidad and Tobago (15), the United Kingdom (6), United States (46: Alaska, California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia), Vanuatu (1), Venezuela (12)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Australia (1), the Dominican Republic (1), United States (3: Alaska)

• Miocene of Argentina (4), Australia (9), Austria (2), Belgium (4), Brazil (3), Bulgaria (5), Chile (4), Colombia (20), Cyprus (1), Denmark (1), the Dominican Republic (5), Ecuador (15), France (2), Germany (42), India (6), Indonesia (4), Iran (1), Iraq (1), Italy (2), Japan (16), Mexico (4), Morocco (4), the Netherlands (3), New Zealand (9), Pakistan (1), Panama (75), Peru (2), Poland (1), the Russian Federation (22), Slovakia (2), Trinidad and Tobago (11), United States (68: Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington), Venezuela (2)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Antarctica (1), the Russian Federation (2), United States (2: Florida)

• Oligocene of Australia (1), Austria (1), Denmark (3), France (7), Haiti (1), Hungary (1), Japan (7), Mexico (1), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (5), Panama (5), Peru (3), Romania (2), the Russian Federation (10), United States (56: Alaska, California, Mississippi, Oregon, Washington)

• Eocene to Oligocene of the Russian Federation (1), United States (1: Virginia)

• Eocene of Angola (4), Antarctica (3), Argentina (3), Australia (5), Belgium (4), Bulgaria (1), Colombia (1), Egypt (2), France (4), Germany (1), Hungary (1), Indonesia (1), Japan (2), Mexico (5), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (7), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (1), Panama (8), Peru (4), the Russian Federation (5), the United Kingdom (19), United States (338: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington)

• Paleocene to Eocene of Australia (1), Pakistan (1)

• Paleocene of Antarctica (2), Argentina (96), Australia (1), Austria (1), Belgium (1), Denmark (6), Egypt (3), Germany (1), Greenland (1), Mexico (7), New Zealand (16), Poland (2), the Russian Federation (6), United States (164: Alabama, Alaska, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia)

• Tertiary of United States (1: California)

• Cretaceous to Paleogene of United States (1: New Jersey)

• Cretaceous of Argentina (17), Australia (4), Austria (1), Cameroon (1), Chile (1), China (3), Colombia (1), Ecuador (1), Egypt (12), France (3), Germany (6), Greenland (1), India (1), Indian Ocean (1), Israel (19), Italy (1), Japan (46), Jordan (6), Kazakhstan (2), Libya (1), Madagascar (1), Mexico (1), Morocco (1), Mozambique (1), New Zealand (37), Poland (16), the Russian Federation (5), Svalbard and Jan Mayen (5), Switzerland (1), Taiwan (1), Tunisia (1), USSR (1), Ukraine (1), the United Kingdom (8), United States (300: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wyoming)

• Jurassic to Cretaceous of Antarctica (1)

• Jurassic of Argentina (8), Canada (7: British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Yukon), Chile (10), China (5), Denmark (8), Egypt (1), France (8), Germany (44), Greenland (34), India (103), Iran (1), Japan (6), Kenya (3), Mexico (1), New Zealand (9), Poland (40), Portugal (45), the Russian Federation (8), Saudi Arabia (5), Somalia (1), Spain (14), Svalbard and Jan Mayen (4), Switzerland (21), Tunisia (3), the United Kingdom (16), United States (1: California)

• Triassic to Jurassic of United States (1: Alaska)

• Triassic of Austria (29), Canada (1: British Columbia), China (17), Germany (4), Hungary (1), Iran (12), Italy (20), Japan (4), Kazakhstan (2), Mexico (1), New Zealand (2), Papua New Guinea (4), the Russian Federation (26), Slovenia (1), Spain (1), Svalbard and Jan Mayen (1), the United Kingdom (1), United States (35: Nevada, Oregon), Vietnam (5)

• Leonard of United States (4: Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming)

• Permian of Australia (55), China (33), Greece (2), Greenland (1), India (3), Iran (1), Japan (3), Lithuania (1), Madagascar (1), Malaysia (1), Mexico (1), Mongolia (6), Nepal (1), New Zealand (10), Oman (1), Pakistan (1), Peru (2), the Russian Federation (52), Singapore (1), Tunisia (5), the United Kingdom (8), United States (70: Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Texas, Utah, Wyoming)

• Virgilian of United States (26: Illinois, Maryland, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas)

• Desmoinesian of United States (25: Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma)

• Pennsylvanian of Argentina (1), Australia (1)

• Westphalian of Spain (1), the United Kingdom (1), United States (1: Kentucky)

• Namurian of Australia (2)

• Chesterian of United States (8: Montana, Ohio, West Virginia)

• Osagean of the United Kingdom (1), United States (4: Indiana, Kentucky)

• Carboniferous of Antarctica (1), Argentina (6), Australia (3), Canada (2: Alberta, Yukon), Peru (3), the United Kingdom (12), United States (67: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, New mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming)

• Mississippian of United States (1: Alaska)

• Devonian of Antarctica (1), Australia (5), Brazil (4), Canada (3: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Quebec), China (2), the Czech Republic (1), Germany (1), Ghana (1), Morocco (3), New Zealand (5), Poland (1), South Africa (6), Turkey (1), Ukraine (1), the United Kingdom (2), United States (42: Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania), Uruguay (1)

• Silurian of China (1), Sweden (1), United States (1: Indiana)

• Ordovician of France (1), Portugal (1)

• Arenig of France (3)

Total: 3107 collections including 4182 occurrences

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