Subfamily Pseudolivinae Cossmann 1901 (true whelk)

Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Buccinidae

Parent taxon: Buccinidae according to J. D. Stilwell et al. 2004

See also Ponder and Warén 1988, Rivera 1957 and Sohl 1964

Sister taxa: Accidenticulabrum, Aeneator, Agasoma, Aliofusus, Amarophos, Ancistrolepis, Antillophos, Aplus, Austrocominella, Austrofusus, Babylonia, Bailya, Beringiinae, Bolis, Brachysphingus, Buccininae, Buccinopsis, Buccinulum, Buccinum, Burnupena, Caducifer, Calicantharus, Cantharus, Chrysodomus, Clinopegma, Colinae, Colubraria, Colus, Cominella, Cymatophos, Cyrtochetus, Dipsaccus, Donovaniinae, Editharus, Egotistica, Engina, Enzinopsis, Eobuccinella, Euthrenopsis, Euthria, Gemophos, Hanetia, Hindsia, Iredalula, Janiopsis, Kaiparanura, Kelletia, Khetella, Lacinia, Laevibuccinum, Latrunculus, Loochooia, Metaphos, Metula, Monoptygma, Monostiolum, Nassa, Nassicola, Nawenia, Neosconsia, Nicema, Northia, Odontobasis, Pangoa, Paracominia, Pareuthria, Parvisipho, Pegocomptus, Penion, Perunassa, Phos, Pisania, Pisaniinae, Pomahakia, Proneptunea, Prosipho, Pseudofulgur, Pseudoneptunea, Ptychosalpinx, Savatieria, Scalaspira, Searlesia, Siphonalia, Siphonalinae, Siphonofusus, Stantonella, Suessionia, Suessonia, Terebrifusus, Trominina, Truncaria, Varicosipho, Volutopsiinae, Wrigleya, Zelandiella

Subtaxa: Benthobia Dorsanum Fulmentum Hubachia Hydrotribulus Luizia Naudoliva Pseudoliva Ptychosyca Strepsidura Strepturidae Sulcoliva Zemira

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Ecology: epifaunal carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Angola (1 collection), South Africa (2)

• Pliocene of South Africa (6)

• Miocene of Australia (3), Austria (5), Chile (4), the Czech Republic (4), France (2), Germany (1), Iran (1), Peru (1), Romania (1), Trinidad and Tobago (1)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Australia (1)

• Oligocene of Ecuador (1), Peru (7), United States (2: California)

• Eocene of Belgium (2), Colombia (6), France (2), Indonesia (4), Japan (1), Mexico (4), Namibia (1), the Netherlands Antilles (1), Nigeria (10), Pakistan (1), Peru (14), Spain (7), the United Kingdom (9), United States (169: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington)

• Paleocene of Antarctica (21), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Austria (1), Belgium (1), Colombia (1), Egypt (1), Germany (1), Greenland (3), Mexico (2), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (1), Poland (3), Trinidad and Tobago (1), the United Kingdom (1), United States (59: Alabama, California, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia)

• Cretaceous of Cameroon (1), United States (22: Alabama, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas)

Total: 397 collections including 506 occurrences

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