Subfamily Viperinae Oppel 1811 (viper)

Reptilia - Squamata - Viperidae

Full reference: M. Oppel. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodom einer Naturgeschichte Derselben. Joseph Lindauer, M√ľnchen xii-86

Parent taxon: Viperidae according to O. Kuhn 1946

See also Oppel 1811 and Szyndlar 1987

Sister taxa: Crotalinae, Provipera, Provipera boettgeri

Subtaxa: Bitis Vipera

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of France (8 collections), Georgia (2), Germany (2), Greece (2), the Netherlands (1), Poland (9), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (4), Tanzania (4), the United Kingdom (5)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of France (1), Italy (1)

• Pliocene of Armenia (1), France (1), Greece (1), Hungary (2), Moldova (1), Morocco (1), Poland (4), the Russian Federation (1), Spain (9), Tanzania (3), Ukraine (5)

• MN 13 of Hungary (1), Ukraine (3)

• Miocene of Austria (2), the Czech Republic (2), France (10), Georgia (1), Germany (12), Greece (1), Hungary (8), Italy (1), Kazakhstan (1), Moldova (1), Morocco (1), Namibia (1), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (2), Slovakia (1), Spain (3), Ukraine (6)

Total: 129 collections including 156 occurrences

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