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Dolichorhynchops osborni

Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Polycotylidae

Taxonomy
Dolichorhynchops osborni was named by Williston (1902). Its type specimen is KUVP 1300, a skeleton (nearly complete skeleton), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is east of Wallace (PROXY), which is in a Campanian marine chalk in the Niobrara Formation of Kansas.

It was recombined as Trinacromerum osborni by Williston (1906), Blank (1910) and Adams (1997).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1902Dolichorhynchops osborni Williston p. 244
1903Dolichorhynchops osborni Williston p. 12
1906Trinacromerum osborni Williston p. 234
1910Trinacromerum osborni Blank
1951Polycotylus osborni Watson
1962Dolichorhynchops osborni Welles pp. 3 & 62
1996Dolichorhynchops osborni Carpenter pp. 270-271 figs. 3, 5-10, 12
1997Trinacromerum osborni Adams p. 182
1997Dolichorhynchops osborni Carpenter p. 215
1999Dolichorhynchops osborni Storrs pp. 9-10
2001Dolichorhynchops osborni O'Keefe p. 17
2004Dolichorhynchops osborni O'Keefe p. 336 figs. Fig. 11
2008Dolichorhynchops osborni O'Keefe p. 665

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
orderSauropterygia
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943
Cryptoclidia
Xenopsaria
Leptocleidia
familyPolycotylidaeWilliston 1908
genusDolichorhynchops
speciesosborni

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. Carpenter 1996Teeth long and slender, with fine striae confined to lower two-thirds,whereas teeth robust in Polycotylus latipinnis and Trinacrmerum bentonianum; temporal fenestra short and wide, but long and narrow in T. bentonianum; suspensorium vertical, inclined posteriorly in T. bentonianum; pterygoid plates do not extend as far posteriorly beyong the posterior interpterygoid fenestra as in T. bentonianum; pterygoid processes of quadrate shorter than in T bentonianum; 46 vertebrae (19 cervicals, 3 pectorals, 23-24 dorsals), versus 54 presacral vertebrae (26 cervicals, 3 pectorals, 25 dorsals) in P. latipinnis and 46 vertebrae (20 cervical, 3 pectorals, 23 dorsals) in T. bentonianum; chevrons borne on posterior of caudal centrum but shared between adjacent caudals in P. latipinnis; ilium straight in T. bentonianum, whereas it curves posteriorly in P. latipinnis.
F. R. O'Keefe 2008Relatively small polycotylid plesiosaur possessing the following unique combination of characters: angulars reach into symphysis but to not meet anterior to splenials; tooth crowns small and long relative to height; pineal foramen present; lateral plates of pterygoids wide with round lateral margins, ectopterygoid not carried on distinct pterygoid process, parasphenoid has well-developed anterior process projecting into anterior interpterygoid vacuity; anterior interpterygoid vacuity extends anteriorly between internal nares; dorsal vertebral centra not compressed; humerus sigmoid but long and gracile, with poorly defined facets for supernumerary ossifications; ilium with pointed proximal end, pubis possesses distinct lateral process